HIV and AIDS
Existing treatments for today (socalled highly active antiretroviral therapy or HAART) allow a person with HIV infection (HIV-positive) to maintain a normal level of immune protection, that is, prevent the onset of AIDS for many years.
Thus, the treatment makes it possible toHIV-positive person to live a long and full life. Man remains HIV-positive but do not develop AIDS. In the treatment and reduces the risk of transmitting the virus.
The mechanism of action of the virus is as follows: entering the body, HIV infects certain category of cells having on the surface the so-called CD-4 receptors. These include immune cells: T-lymphocytes and macrophages, and related neural tissue microglial cells. The main effect of the virus appears on the stage of AIDS lies in the fact that the immune system is weakened, that is developing immune deficiency: a person is vulnerable to many infections, called opportunistic. These include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis, herpes zoster and others.
Treatment of HIV infection begin when the concentrationvirus in the blood increases dramatically, or less than two hundred of the opposing cell infection remains in one milliliter of blood (T-helper cells). Up to this point the immune system of an HIV-positive person withstands various diseases and the need to appoint no drugs.
Where did HIV?
The unequivocal answer to this question is, unfortunately,no. There are only hypotheses. Each of them has its own justification, but in the scientific world they are still only speculation - and possible for someone very controversial versions of what happened.
The very first hypothesis of the origin of HIV is associated withmonkeys. She expressed over 20 years ago, an American researcher B. Corbett. According to this scientist, HIV first arrived in human blood in the 30s of the last century by the chimpanzee - possibly by the bite of an animal or human in the process of butchering carcasses. In favor of this version, there are serious arguments. One of them - a rare virus was indeed found in chimpanzee blood, capable if it enters the human body to cause a condition similar to AIDS.
According to another researcher, Professor R. Gerry, AIDS is much older: its history goes back 100 to 1000 years. One of the most serious arguments to support this hypothesis - Kaposi's sarcoma, described at the beginning of the XX century Hungarian doctor Kaposi as "a rare form of cancer," testified about the presence of HIV virus in a patient.
Many scientists believe the birthplace of AIDS CentralAfrica. This hypothesis is in turn divided into two versions. According to one of them, HIV has long existed in the isolated from the outside world regions, for example, in the tribal settlements, lost in the jungle. Over time, as the population increased migration, the virus escaped "out" and began to spread rapidly. The second version is that the virus originated as a result of increased background radiation, which is registered in some parts of Africa, rich uranium deposits.
More recently, there is another hypothesis,owned by the British researcher E. Hupeoru: the virus appeared in the early 50s of the twentieth century as a result of errors of scientists working on the creation of the polio vaccine. The error lay in the fact that for the production of vaccines used chimpanzee liver cells suspected of containing a virus similar to HIV. One of the strongest arguments in favor of this hypothesis is the fact that the vaccine was tested in precisely those areas of Africa where today recorded the highest level of immunodeficiency virus infection.
Finally, the last known version, notproven, but not refuted - HIV was obtained in the 70's as a result of genetic engineering aimed at creating another type of weapon.