What is muscular dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy is a group actuallygenetic diseases characterized by progressive symmetrical atrophy of skeletal muscles, flowing without loss of sensitivity and pain in the limbs. Paradoxically, the affected muscle can increase in size because of the growth of connective tissue and fat, creating a false impression of strong muscles.
Until now, there is no means curativemuscular dystrophy. There are four main types of this disease. The most common muscular dystrophy (50% of all cases). Usually the disease begins in early childhood and causes death to 20 years. Becker muscular dystrophy develops slowly patients live more than 40 years. Of shoulder-facial and limb girdle dystrophy, usually does not affect life expectancy.
Causes of Muscular Dystrophy
Development of muscular dystrophy. caused by different genes. Dyuschenna Muscular Dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy are caused by genes located on sex chromosomes, and sick of only men. Of shoulder-facial and limb-lumbar dystrophy is not associated with sex chromosomes; they fall ill, and men and women.
Symptoms of muscular dystrophy
All varieties of muscular dystrophy cause progressive muscle atrophy, but they differ in the degree of severity of the disease and the time of its occurrence.
- Duchenne muscular dystrophy manifests itself in earlyage (between 3 and 5 years). Sick children waddle walk with difficulty up the stairs, often fall can not run. When they raise their hands, the blades have a "lag" from the trunk - this symptom is called "wing-shaped blades." Usually a child with muscular dystrophy to 9-12 years is confined to a wheelchair. Progressive weakness of the heart muscle leads to death from the sudden heart failure, respiratory failure or infection.
- Although Becker's dystrophy has much in common withDuchenne muscular dystrophy, it develops much more slowly. Symptoms appear around the age of 5 years, but after 15 years of sick children are usually still retain the ability to walk, and sometimes much later.
- Of shoulder-front dystrophy developsslowly, for its relatively benign. Most often the disease begins before 10 years, but may occur in early adolescence. Children who have subsequently found this pathology in infancy bad suck; When they get older, they can not put his lips to a whistle, raising his hands above his head. Patients face distinguished by a sedentary children in laughter or crying, sometimes note facial expressions, different from the normal.
A doctor examines a child asks questions about diseases
family members and appoints some research. If any of the relatives
ill muscular dystrophy, a doctor finds out how he proceeded dystrophy. Analyzing
the data obtained, we can predict what to expect of the child. If the family does not
had muscular dystrophy patients, electromyography will assess the functioning of
nerves in the affected muscles and establish the presence of muscular dystrophy; study
piece of muscle tissue (biopsy) may reveal the presence of cellular changes and
In medical centers, equipped with the most modern
equipment for molecular biological and immunological studies
can determine exactly whether the child is suffering from muscular dystrophy.
These centers can also conduct a survey of parents and relatives
that they have genes that determine the development of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and muscle
Until now, no means which would could stop
the progression of muscle wasting in muscular dystrophy. However, orthopedic
device, as well as physiotherapy, physical therapy and surgery to correct
contractures may for some time to maintain the mobility of the child or adolescent.
Members of families in which there have been cases of muscle disease
dystrophy, should seek genetic counseling so that
find out if there is a risk of transmitting diseases to the unborn baby.