A frequent reason for seeking pediatric neurology andtherapist are ticks (tic hyperkinesis), which are sudden, involuntary, violent, jerky, repetitive movements. They usually occur at the age of 5-8 years, and 4-6 paz tics occur frequently in boys than in girls.
The origin of ticks play a role genetic andimmune mechanisms, pathology pregnancy and childbirth, as well as psychosocial factors. You should always bear in mind the possibility of several factors that affect each other.
Psychological factors (unfavorable familyenvironment, separation from one parent as a result of family breakdown, poor relations in the children's collective) play the role of provoking or exacerbating factor. For some children the disease appears after the first days of school hours, on the background of school stress adaptation ( "tics of the First of September"). Among other stressful situations often occur separation from one parent as a result of family breakdown, episodes of sudden fright. Some children have tics after a long mental overload, which can be regarded as a chronic stressor.
A distinctive feature of ticks is theirirresistible character. Any attempt to suppress willpower tick appearance inevitably leads to an increase in stress and anxiety, and committing violent desired motor response brings immediate relief. Tiki significantly strengthened under the influence of emotional stimuli - anxiety, fear, embarrassment.
Tiki: what they are
Tics may be motor (motor) andvoice (vocal). Motor tics remind purposeful movement; the most common of them - it's blinking, frowning eyebrows. Less common are head turning or tilting the head back (think Captain Ovechkin by Armen Jigarkhanyan from the movie "The New Adventures of the elusive" or Lelik from "Brilliant hands" by Andrey Mironov). Vocal tics are shown shouting meaningless sounds or words. In severe cases, the vocal tics may manifest as coprolalia (uttering hostile, offensive or socially inappropriate words or phrases).
The combination of motor and vocal tics of Tourette's syndrome is called. It is known that similar symptoms were observed in Mozart.
The course is undulating character ticks withperiods of improvement and worsening. In children, for example, the period of improvement can be observed during the holidays. Some patients reported seasonal fluctuations in the intensity of symptoms.
Approximately half of children with ticsmarked symptoms of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. A tick marked approximately every third child with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. These diseases share many common pathogenesis. Tics are more frequent in cases of prevalence of hyperactivity and impulsivity (but not inattention). Typically, symptoms of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity observed before, but tics join later. Frequent companions ticks are dysgraphia and dyslexia. In addition, children with tics often observed different obsessive movements, thoughts and desires.
How to get rid of ticks
Treatment of children with tics involved childrenneurologists and psychotherapists. It is best to contact a specialized center, where there are neurologists, psychotherapists, psychologists. Before treatment is better to make an electroencephalogram.
Children with tics must observe the regime of the day. It should be possible to exclude unusual positive and negative stimuli. Tics are often worse during watching television, especially when turned off the electric light. The fact that a bright flickering light is able to provoke changes in the bioelectric activity of the brain. Therefore, watching television children with tics must be limited as much as possible within 1-1.5 months. The same restrictions apply computer games.
There are features of psychological correctionin children with tics. The main objective in such cases is not so much a reduction of hyperkinesis as improvement of social adaptation. Because children with tics are characterized by low self-esteem and increased anxiety, you need to encourage patients to inspire their confidence. It is also necessary to explain the parents of these children that tics are not arbitrary. It is very important psychologically, as relatives of the patient often notice that sometimes he can keep tick. As a result, some are beginning to consider tick disease, others - promiscuity. It makes no sense to hold back tics, and can not focus on the child giperkinezah.
A special role in the treatment of ticks plays psychotherapy. For the treatment of ticks following psychotherapeutic methods are used: behavioral therapies, hypnotherapy, autogenous training, simvolodrama. Using biofeedback allows your child to learn to relax and reduce not only tics, but also emotional stress.
In the treatment of ticks and used tranquillizersneuroleptics, which have a calming effect. Since ticks are often combined with inattention and school problems, the complex treatment using various nootropic drugs that positively affect the higher integrative brain function. The specific drug to treat your child's neurologist recommend.
And again, to improve the child's condition is very important that the parents themselves were calm as possible and cheerful.