What is Parkinson's disease

Content

  • Parkinson's disease
  • What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease
  • What are the causes of Parkinson's disease



  • Parkinson's disease

    Parkinson's disease (shaking palsy) - a chronic, progressive
    brain disease, first described in 1817 by the English physician
    J.. Parkinson. Patients with Parkinson's often
    suffer from involuntary limb tremor (tremors), muscle
    rigidity, impaired coordination and speech, as well as have difficulty with
    movement. These symptoms usually develop after age 60, although there are
    cases of Parkinson's disease under the age of 50 years.

    Parkinsonism - progressive
    disease, i.e. its symptoms and effects over time and they are aggravated
    deteriorate. However, despite the fact that eventually Parkinson's disease
    lead to disability and loss of capacity, the disease progresses
    slowly and even after diagnosis, most patients for many years
    can lead a full life.

    Moreover, unlike other
    serious neurological diseases, Parkinson's disease to treat.
    Often resorting to medication, or implanted in the brain
    special device stimulating brain activity. In extreme cases,
    resorted to surgery - brain surgery Stereotaxy method, the essence of which
    is the destruction of a small area in the subcortical brain structures. Currently
    continuing search for effective treatments for Parkinson's disease.



    What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    The first symptoms of the disease
    Parkinson's hard to see - such as hand immobility when, easy walking
    tremor in the fingers of one hand, or minor speech disorders. Sick
    feel the devastation, loss of strength, likely to be depressed or suffer from
    insomnia. In addition, the usual classes (shower, shaving, cooking and
    etc.) require more effort and take more time.

    Tremor. Tremor often begins with a light shake hands or even
    individual fingers. Sometimes accompanied by a hand tremor uneven movement
    thumb and middle finger reminiscent of rolling invisible pills (the so-called
    "Pills skating syndrome"). Sometimes there is a tremor, and lower extremities. These
    symptoms may be expressed on more than one side of the body or manifest
    symmetrical and combined with other symptoms of nervous system:
    impaired coordination, sensitivity, and others. Tremor is particularly evident when
    the patient is under stress. Although limb tremor causes
    considerable inconvenience, it does not lead to loss of capacity and disappears
    Only when the patient is sleeping. Many patients with Parkinson's suffer from a
    slight tremor.

    slow motion (Bradykinesia). Over time, the disease
    Parkinson "acquires" new symptoms, including slowness and
    clumsiness and incoordination. Stiff leg muscles can
    impede movement, impaired gait. This is particularly unfortunate, since
    difficult to perform simple actions.

    What is Parkinson's diseaseStiff muscles. muscle stiffness appears often (or stiffness)
    neck and limbs. In some cases even rigidity constrains movement and
    It hurts.

    Loss of balance. Parkinsonism, especially in severe, often
    accompanied by an inability to maintain balance. Over the years, this
    problem remains low and does not cause discomfort.

    Loss of automatism of movements. A wink, a smile and appearance
    waving his arms while walking - automatic actions of a normal organism,
    that run on a subconscious level, and even the addition of our desire. In
    Parkinson's patients this automatism movements often disappears, and sometimes
    It disappears. In some cases, patients face firmly fixed
    expression of close attention and intense, unblinking stare. some
    patients, in addition to facial expressions, and lost the ability to gesticulation.

    Violation of articulation. Many patients also suffer from Parkinson's
    from speech disorders - it can become slightly modulated, illegible. Vote
    It loses tone and becomes monotonous and quiet. For older people this
    It presents a special problem because hard of hearing older cohabitants (husband
    or wife) may simply not hear.

    Violation of swallowing and salivation. This symptom appears on the
    the later stages of the disease, but, with few exceptions, patients with this
    symptom is still able to eat on their own.

    Dementia. A small percentage of patients suffering from Parkinson's
    from dementia - inability to think, understand and remember. This symptom is also
    It appears in the later stages of the disease. Although dementia is more likely to believe
    a manifestation of Alzheimer's disease, it may be accompanied by other serious
    diseases, including Parkinson's disease. In this case, the beginning of dementia
    It indicates slowing of thought processes and inability to
    focus.



    What are the causes of Parkinson's disease

    Over the 200 years that have passed since
    Since the opening of Parkinson's disease, scientists were able to understand some aspects and
    processes of this complex disease.

    Today we know that many
    symptoms and symptoms of Parkinson's disease develops as a result of damage or
    destruction of certain nerve endings (neurons) arranged in black
    matter of the brain. Normally these nerve cells
    produce dopamine. dopamine function is to smooth the pulse transmission
    for the maintenance of normal movements. In Parkinson's disease is reduced
    production of dopamine, interferes with the normal transmission of nerve impulses and
    there are major symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

    In the process of aging all people lose
    some of the dopamine-producing neutrons. But Parkinson's patients lose
    more than half of neutrons located in the substantia nigra. although there is
    degeneration and other cells of the brain, namely producing cells
    dopamine, essential for movement, so their loss is catastrophic. Causes
    damage or destruction of these cells is still the subject of numerous
    studies. According to scientists, Parkinson's disease can develop as a result of
    unfavorable combination of genetic and environmental factors. specific
    drugs, disease and toxic substances can also create clinical
    pattern similar to Parkinson's.

    Genetic factors. According to scientists, genetic
    factor plays an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease, but it is difficult to
    determine how strong heredity.

    External factors. People working with herbicides and
    pesticides, more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than
    rest. However, scientists have not been able to establish a connection between one or another
    toxic substance and parkinsonism.

    medicine. A number of drugs taken
    for a long time or at high doses, can cause symptoms
    parkinsonism. These include drugs such as haloperidol (Haldol) and chlorpromazine (Thorazine), which
    prescribed for the treatment of certain psychiatric disorders and drug
    anti-nausea, such as metoclopramide (Reglan, Metoclopramide).
    The anti-epileptic valproic acid (Depakene) may also cause some symptoms
    Parkinson, especially tremor.

    These drugs do not cause
    the development of Parkinson's disease, and the symptoms disappear after cessation of administration.

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