Parkinson's disease (shaking palsy) - a chronic, progressive
brain disease, first described in 1817 by the English physician
J.. Parkinson. Patients with Parkinson's often
suffer from involuntary limb tremor (tremors), muscle
rigidity, impaired coordination and speech, as well as have difficulty with
movement. These symptoms usually develop after age 60, although there are
cases of Parkinson's disease under the age of 50 years.
Parkinsonism - progressive
disease, i.e. its symptoms and effects over time and they are aggravated
deteriorate. However, despite the fact that eventually Parkinson's disease
lead to disability and loss of capacity, the disease progresses
slowly and even after diagnosis, most patients for many years
can lead a full life.
Moreover, unlike other
serious neurological diseases, Parkinson's disease to treat.
Often resorting to medication, or implanted in the brain
special device stimulating brain activity. In extreme cases,
resorted to surgery - brain surgery Stereotaxy method, the essence of which
is the destruction of a small area in the subcortical brain structures. Currently
continuing search for effective treatments for Parkinson's disease.
What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease
The first symptoms of the disease
Parkinson's hard to see - such as hand immobility when, easy walking
tremor in the fingers of one hand, or minor speech disorders. Sick
feel the devastation, loss of strength, likely to be depressed or suffer from
insomnia. In addition, the usual classes (shower, shaving, cooking and
etc.) require more effort and take more time.
Tremor. Tremor often begins with a light shake hands or even
individual fingers. Sometimes accompanied by a hand tremor uneven movement
thumb and middle finger reminiscent of rolling invisible pills (the so-called
"Pills skating syndrome"). Sometimes there is a tremor, and lower extremities. These
symptoms may be expressed on more than one side of the body or manifest
symmetrical and combined with other symptoms of nervous system:
impaired coordination, sensitivity, and others. Tremor is particularly evident when
the patient is under stress. Although limb tremor causes
considerable inconvenience, it does not lead to loss of capacity and disappears
Only when the patient is sleeping. Many patients with Parkinson's suffer from a
slow motion (Bradykinesia). Over time, the disease
Parkinson "acquires" new symptoms, including slowness and
clumsiness and incoordination. Stiff leg muscles can
impede movement, impaired gait. This is particularly unfortunate, since
difficult to perform simple actions.
Stiff muscles. muscle stiffness appears often (or stiffness)
neck and limbs. In some cases even rigidity constrains movement and
Loss of balance. Parkinsonism, especially in severe, often
accompanied by an inability to maintain balance. Over the years, this
problem remains low and does not cause discomfort.
Loss of automatism of movements. A wink, a smile and appearance
waving his arms while walking - automatic actions of a normal organism,
that run on a subconscious level, and even the addition of our desire. In
Parkinson's patients this automatism movements often disappears, and sometimes
It disappears. In some cases, patients face firmly fixed
expression of close attention and intense, unblinking stare. some
patients, in addition to facial expressions, and lost the ability to gesticulation.
Violation of articulation. Many patients also suffer from Parkinson's
from speech disorders - it can become slightly modulated, illegible. Vote
It loses tone and becomes monotonous and quiet. For older people this
It presents a special problem because hard of hearing older cohabitants (husband
or wife) may simply not hear.
Violation of swallowing and salivation. This symptom appears on the
the later stages of the disease, but, with few exceptions, patients with this
symptom is still able to eat on their own.
Dementia. A small percentage of patients suffering from Parkinson's
from dementia - inability to think, understand and remember. This symptom is also
It appears in the later stages of the disease. Although dementia is more likely to believe
a manifestation of Alzheimer's disease, it may be accompanied by other serious
diseases, including Parkinson's disease. In this case, the beginning of dementia
It indicates slowing of thought processes and inability to
What are the causes of Parkinson's disease
Over the 200 years that have passed since
Since the opening of Parkinson's disease, scientists were able to understand some aspects and
processes of this complex disease.
Today we know that many
symptoms and symptoms of Parkinson's disease develops as a result of damage or
destruction of certain nerve endings (neurons) arranged in black
matter of the brain. Normally these nerve cells
produce dopamine. dopamine function is to smooth the pulse transmission
for the maintenance of normal movements. In Parkinson's disease is reduced
production of dopamine, interferes with the normal transmission of nerve impulses and
there are major symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
In the process of aging all people lose
some of the dopamine-producing neutrons. But Parkinson's patients lose
more than half of neutrons located in the substantia nigra. although there is
degeneration and other cells of the brain, namely producing cells
dopamine, essential for movement, so their loss is catastrophic. Causes
damage or destruction of these cells is still the subject of numerous
studies. According to scientists, Parkinson's disease can develop as a result of
unfavorable combination of genetic and environmental factors. specific
drugs, disease and toxic substances can also create clinical
pattern similar to Parkinson's.
Genetic factors. According to scientists, genetic
factor plays an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease, but it is difficult to
determine how strong heredity.
External factors. People working with herbicides and
pesticides, more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than
rest. However, scientists have not been able to establish a connection between one or another
toxic substance and parkinsonism.
medicine. A number of drugs taken
for a long time or at high doses, can cause symptoms
parkinsonism. These include drugs such as haloperidol (Haldol) and chlorpromazine (Thorazine), which
prescribed for the treatment of certain psychiatric disorders and drug
anti-nausea, such as metoclopramide (Reglan, Metoclopramide).
The anti-epileptic valproic acid (Depakene) may also cause some symptoms
Parkinson, especially tremor.
These drugs do not cause
the development of Parkinson's disease, and the symptoms disappear after cessation of administration.