apitoxin

Content

  • The concept of the bee venom
  • The main components of bee venom
  • The mechanism of action of bee venom on the body



  • The concept of the bee venom

    In honey bees (worker bees, and the uterus) is located at the end of the abdomen protection authority - stinging apparatus, which consists of a sting, two poisonous glands and reservoir poison.

    Stitching of the sting are indent,impeding its recovery from the skin. When a bee sting plunges the tip of the tip into the skin. Stung by a bee flies, and sting, lingering in the skin comes off along with all stinging apparatus. Influenced by contracting muscles apparatus all the poison gradually flows from the reservoir into the wound. A few hours after the stinging bee dies.

    Bee venom - apitoxin (from the Greek «Apis» -bee and «toxin» - poison) is a colorless transparent colloidal liquid with a characteristic odor reminiscent of honey, bitter and pungent taste. venom acidic reaction, specific gravity 1.131. The solids content of 41% bee venom.



    The main components of bee venom

    The chemical composition of bee venom is very complex,not completely understood. Most researchers are of bee venom as a complex set of fat-like and minerals, amino acids and proteins.

    The protein complex of bee venom is divided into three main factions:

    • zero (F-0)
    • Fraction 1 (F1)
    • Fraction 2 (P-2)

    Proteins zero fraction devoid of toxic action, and bulking agents are bee venom.

    Fraction 1 has a toxic effect andIt is resistant to high temperature protein called melittin. Melittin - the main active principle of bee venom. Most of the changes coming in the body with stinging bee, due to the influence of melittin on the nervous system, muscles, blood and circulation.

    Upon contact with the blood of melittin ishemolysis (red blood cell decay). Melittin dilates blood vessels. Furthermore, it possesses local irritant effect, leading to the development of inflammatory reactions at the site of administration. Melittin is resistant to acids, alkalis, high and low temperatures.

    Fraction 2 comparatively low toxicity, isessentially of amino acids. Furthermore, this fraction contains two highly active enzyme - phospholipase A and hyaluronidase. The first enzyme cleaves lecithin, a part of cell membranes which can lead to cell damage, up to their complete disintegration. Acting on erythrocytes, phospholipase (Lecithinase), causing their haemolysis. The second enzyme of this fraction - hyaluronidase - increases the permeability of blood vessels, causing the speed of absorption of poison when stinging and strengthening its local action.

    Fraction 2 inhibits one of the enzymes requiredfor blood clotting, - thrombokinase, thereby reducing blood coagulation. Therefore, in large doses, bee venom causes hemorrhage (bleeding) in the internal organs.

    Under the influence of high-temperature enzymesbee venom destroyed. Burning sensation when stinging occurs when the action on the body of active substances acetylcholine and histamine as well as inorganic acids (formic, hydrochloric, phosphoric).

    The composition of bee venom include the following chemicals:

    • hydrogen
    • carbon
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
    • potassium
    • calcium
    • iron
    • magnesium
    • phosphorus
    • copper
    • zinc
    • sulfur
    • manganese
    • iodine
    • chlorine

    The complexity of the chemical composition of bee venom and determines the complexity of its effects on the human body.

    Bee venom is resistant to acids and alkalis,variations in temperature. Heating to 100? C and freezing does not alter its composition. However, when administered under the influence of digestive enzymes bee venom is destroyed. In air venom dries quickly, but in the dry state retains its activity for a number of years.

    Bee venom is very strong disinfecting agent: even at a dilution of 1: 50,000, he maintains the sterility, completely free of microorganisms.



    The mechanism of action of bee venom on the body

    apitoxinThe action of bee venom on the human body is very complex and depends largely on the number of stings, bites and localization of individual susceptibility of the organism.

    When ingested large amounts of poison, along with a local reaction (appearance of pain, burning, swelling and redness at the site stinging) observed overall reaction.

    In mild cases, it may be expressed inmalaise, fever, headache, rash appearance of urticaria type. In more severe cases, these symptoms are joined vomiting, diarrhea, shortness of breath, cyanosis, rapid pulse, drop in blood pressure, unconsciousness, haemolysis of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the urine, seizures.

    The sensitivity of humans to bee venom is different. The mechanism of the toxic effect of the bee venom on the body is complex and is the result of a complex combination of several components of the venom in the various organs and systems.

    In toxic doses, the poison causes the destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis), which is associated with exposure to the red blood cells of fraction 1 and fraction of phospholipase A 2.

    Due to the suppression of one of the phospholipaseenzymes necessary for normal blood clotting (thrombokinase), bee venom lowers blood clotting, so increased bleeding and bleeding under the skin may occur in cases of poisoning.

    Swelling occurring at the site stinging,and blood pressure drop is largely attributable to the action on the blood vessels hyaluronidase fraction 2, histamine, acetylcholine and melittin on the nervous system, resulting in dramatically increased capillary permeability and blood pressure falls.

    General toxic effects of bee venomis mainly due to the fraction 1 and to a greater extent by mellittina having versatile and features, chief among which it is neurotoxic effects.

    Between toxic and therapeutic doses of bee venom there is a very big difference, which makes it possible to vary widely the therapeutic dose for each individual patient.

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