The main manifestations of acute radiation sickness
Manifestations of acute radiation sickness directlyIt depends on the radiation dose. At a dose of 1 Gray observed asymptomatic diseases at doses of about 30-50 Gray and more comes a heavy defeat. Immediately after irradiation appears the so-called primary reaction. Symptoms of the primary reaction to irradiation consist of nausea and vomiting (after 30-90 minutes after exposure), headache, weakness.
At doses less than 1.5, these phenomena may Grayabsent, at higher doses, they occur and their degree of severity is greater the higher the dose. Nausea, which may be limited to the primary reaction with mild illness, is replaced by vomiting, with increasing radiation dose vomiting becomes a multiple character. Several broken this relationship by ingestion of radionuclides in the body of the radioactive cloud. In this case, it may be repeated vomiting, persistent even at doses close to 2 Gray. Sometimes victims say a metallic taste in the mouth.
At doses above 4-6 Grey external exposurehaving transient reddening of the skin and mucous membranes, swelling of the mucous membrane of the cheeks, with light teeth imprints on her tongue. The irradiation of the radioactive cloud, when the skin and mucous membranes simultaneously affects different components of radiation injury, inhalation of radioactive gases and aerosols possible early appearance rhinopharyngitis (defeat of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat), conjunctivitis, radiation erythema, even when developing acute radiation sickness mild .
Gradually, over several hours, allmanifestation of the primary reaction subsides, ends vomiting, reduced headache, redness of the skin disappears and mucous membranes. The state of health of patients is improving, although still very marked weakness and fatigue. When combined with external irradiation hit the inside of radionuclides directly acting on the mucous membrane of the intestine and respiratory tract, in the early days after irradiation may be loose stools several times a day.
All these phenomena (the first signs of radiation sickness)in the next few days go by, but after a certain period appear again this time as a major and very dangerous signs of acute radiation sickness. At the same time except for the quantitative relationships between dose and effect, between the power of the dose and effect, there is another characteristic phenomenon for radiation injuries - the higher the dose, the sooner will be a specific biological effect. This phenomenon is specific to that primary reaction at high dosage vomiting occurs earlier, the main symptoms of the disease: radiation stomatitis, enteritis, falling numbers of leukocytes, platelets, with all their laws, epilation, skin lesions, etc. - Appear sooner than the higher dose. This phenomenon was named according to "dose - time effect", which plays a crucial role in biological dosimetry.
Many victims without strict dependence ondosage within the first days of illness can be noted transient enlargement of the spleen. Breakup of red bone marrow light yellowness of the sclera can be caused and increased indirect bilirubin in the blood that indicates liver damage. There are the following forms of radiation sickness:
Acute radiation syndrome with lesions hematopoietic system
Doses over 100 rad cause medullary formacute radiation sickness of varying severity. In this form of the main manifestations of the disease and the outcome depends largely on the extent of hematopoiesis. Doses single total exposure of over 600 rad considered fatal, death occurs during the period from 1 to 2 months after irradiation. In the most typical form of acute radiation sickness in the beginning, after a few minutes or hours, I received a dose of more than 200 rad having primary reactions (nausea, vomiting, general weakness). After 3-4 days the symptoms subside, the period of an imaginary being. However, careful examination revealed in disease progression. This period lasts from 14-15 days to 4-5 weeks. In the following general condition worsens, growing weakness, appear hemorrhage, increased body temperature. The number of leukocytes in peripheral blood after a short-term increase progressively decreases, falling (due to lesions forming organs) to extremely low numbers (leukopenia radiation) that predisposes to the development of sepsis and hemorrhage. This period of 2-3 weeks.
The intestinal form of the disease
When the total irradiation at doses from 1000 to 5000 raddeveloped intestinal form of acute radiation sickness, characterized by a primary lesion of the bowel, leading to a violation of water-salt metabolism (from heavy diarrhea), and circulatory disorders. Observed manifestations in the form of radiation stomatitis, gastritis, colitis, esophagitis, and others. The man in this form usually die within the first day, bypassing the normal phases of development of radiation sickness.
Cerebral form of acute radiation sickness
After whole-body irradiation at doses greater than 5,000 radsDeath occurs within 1-3 days, or even at the time of irradiation damage of brain tissue (this form of radiation sickness called cerebral). The characteristic symptoms of the disease is congestion, rapid exhaustion, then comes confusion and loss of consciousness may develop. Patients die in cerebral coma phenomena in the early hours after irradiation.