Esophageal cancer - it's mostly male diseaseof the population older than 55 years. Men suffer more than women on average, 5-10 times. The peak incidence between the ages of 55-60 years of age and older, and those over 70 years old make up about 40 percent of cases.
Worldwide registered for one yearabout 5.2 million deaths from malignant tumors and esophageal cancer - the cause of 900 thousand of them. Esophageal cancer - a disease characterized by a high mortality rate. About 70 percent of patients die within 1 year after diagnosis. The mortality rate is only slightly less morbidity. These sad figures relate primarily to the fact that 70 - 80 percent of esophageal cancer is detected already in the late stages of development, when the hope of a successful outcome of treatment and the long life of the patient is already very difficult.
A feature of the global disease patternsesophageal cancer is that none of the other tumor is not such a large geographical dependence. When comparing the figures of different countries may vary up to 100 times. The highest incidence of esophageal cancer in China, Iran, Central and Middle Asia countries - there are annually about 100 sick people per 100 thousand population. The regions with the lowest level (Armenia, Mali, Israel, Vietnam) is lower by almost 100 times and is about 1.7-2.2 cases per 100,000 population per year. In our country, an average of 6.8 cases registered 100,000 esophageal cancers per year, with the highest incidence is observed in Yakutia, Tuva (up to 10 per 100 000 per year), while the lowest - in the North Caucasus (4 100 million per year). The rest of the Russian regions had a rate of about 6-8 per 100 thousand people per year.
Classification by the cellular structure of the tumorIt is used to evaluate the aggressiveness of its growth and development. There are highly differentiated options for esophageal cancer (when the tumor cells are not very different from normal cells of the stomach), moderately differentiated (average degree of difference), poorly differentiated and undifferentiated (in this case, cancer cells almost completely lose their "similarity" to those from which they came) . High-grade options for esophageal cancer characterized by a slower rate of growth and metastasis. Undifferentiated forms, on the contrary, grow more quickly and aggressively, metastasize early and are distinguished by a worse prognosis. In 80-90 percent of cases of esophageal cancer is rising from the squamous epithelium (squamous cell carcinoma), adenocarcinoma (similar in structure to stomach cancer) occurs in 7-10 percent of cases.
The most important classification of esophageal cancer (as well asany other malignancy) - is TNM classification. It was developed by the International Union against Cancer and is used around the world. With it determined the prevalence of tumors on the stomach and the body of man and statistical forecast results of treatment. Letters the TNM - the acronym of the Latin words Tumor (swelling), Nodulus (unit - in this case refers to the lymph nodes), Metastasis (metastatic). Accordingly, the classification is reflected in tumor germination depth esophageal wall (subscript T), the presence and number of involved lymph nodes (index N) and the presence or absence of tumor nodules - metastases - in other organs (M Code). Each characteristic is indicated by the appropriate number about uppercase letters, for example T3 N1 M0, T1 N0 M0, T3 N2 M1 and so on. The combination of values is determined by TNM stage esophageal cancer.
At stage esophageal cancer distinguished from 0 to 4. Stage 0 - This is the earliest form of cancer of the esophagus. When her tumor is very small, located in the most superficial layers of the inside of the esophagus and affects the lymph nodes and other organs. The first, second and third stages - it is more common forms of cancer. When their germination esophageal wall deeper (up to an outside of its shell) and can already be defeated periesophageal lymph nodes. In step 4, in almost all cases appear metastases in other organs (liver, lungs, bones, and so on). Accordingly, the stage and prognosis of different treatment outcome. The most best and 0 the prognosis of the first stage can achieve a stable cure in approximately 90 percent of patients. At 2 and 3 stages of the forecast is already worse, but the chances of a successful outcome is. With 4 stages to help a person get rid of the cancer of the esophagus, and even to achieve long-term remission (stop the disease) is almost impossible.