Prostate cancer

Content

  • The causes of prostate cancer
  • Prostate Cancer Clinic
  • Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer Treatment


  • For example, among men under 45 years, mortality from prostate cancer is negligible
    (3 cases per 1 million. Pers.), But after 75 years, this value increases
    more than 400 times, reaching 130 cases per 100 000 people. In the territory
    Russia prostate cancer is almost 2 times less than the world as a whole.
    However, the growth rate of the disease over the past 10 years have been so great,
    that over the next decade the incidence can catch up with global
    digits.



    The causes of prostate cancer

    • Prostate cancerage-related hormonal changes in the male, associated with
      changes in the hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal glands - the testes. In
      persons with high androgenic background (eg, persons with high sexual
      activity) prostate cancer is more common
    • genetic predisposition
    • place of residence and race (prostate cancer less often
      found in eastern Europe and Asia, mostly in America and Scandinavia)
    • cadmium toxicosis (chronic cadmium intoxication)
    • nutrient imbalance (reduction in food products of plant and vitamin
      E, with increased animal fat and protein intake)

    Prostate cancer
    often runs precancer stage, timely detection
    which is extremely important in terms of prognosis and treatment
    disease.

    TO precancer prostate relate:

    • Atypical hyperplasia. It fakultatiyny precancer that is convertible to a cancer under certain conditions.
    • Intraepithelial neoplpaziya. It is an obligate precancer predecessor adenokartsnomy prostate.

    The classification of cancer of the prostate founded
    in the histological pattern and characteristics of growth. Unlike adenoma
    Prostate cancer develops most frequently in the peripheral area and only
    10% of cases in a transitional zone, the most characteristic of the adenoma.

    There are
    adenocarcinoma (glandular cancer) and squamous cell carcinoma of varying degrees
    differentiation and scirrhous and solid cancer. Prostate cancer,
    It is typically characterized by multifocal growth and different levels of
    differentiation of cells of tumor tissue. The degree of differentiation of cancer
    It can be divided into 5 levels, determining its further classification
    Gleason. Depending on the resulting number is determined by the Gleason
    prognosis and further treatment. More
    common practice is the TNM-classification, giving
    clinical and histological characteristics of the tumor itself (T),
    the existence and extent of lymph node involvement (N), the availability and
    characteristic of distant metastases (M).



    Prostate Cancer Clinic

    symptoms,
    characteristic only for prostate cancer, unfortunately does not exist. More
    addition, many of the symptoms are similar to those of prostate adenoma
    cancer that requires more attention when they are identified. complaints
    patients usually associated with symptoms or proliferation of the tumor,
    or the emergence of metastases. Due to the long asymptomatic
    current and late detection, more than half the time at
    primary prostate cancer already have metastases.

    Typically, the tumor detected incidentally during prophylactic or diagnostic examinations. Prostate cancer
    It has a relatively slow growth. When metastasis
    Tumor propagation occurs both in the blood and by
    lymphatic system. With the growth of the tumor to the urethra
    there are frequent urination, blood in the urine, disturbance
    urination up to the edge of his delay. During germination of tumor
    adjacent organs (seminal vesicles, bladder, rectum)
    observed symptoms of these bodies. Thus, by
    urinary system may cause cystitis, pyelonephritis, and even chronic renal failure.
    Possible bone metastases in a pelvis, and other
    parts of the skeleton. Nearest metastases are often accompanied by swelling of the legs and
    scrotum. Distant metastases are most common in the lungs, liver and
    adrenals.



    Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    The most effective methods of early diagnosis prostate cancer is an:

    • Prostate cancerdigital rectal examination of the prostate
    • rectal prostate ultrasound study (transrectal sonography)
    • determining the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

    All of these methods complement each other and allow the suspect or detect prostate cancer
    the early, pre-clinical stages of development. Thus, the level of definition
    PSA provides 15 to 40% of false positive and false negative
    results because It depends on such factors as the previous massage
    prostate, instrumental examinations, inflammation, and even
    ejaculation long before the study.

    Another, more accurate
    the method is to determine the prostate-density index
    specific antigen, PSA obtained to-volume ratio
    Prostate. Even more valuable indicator is the rate of rise
    PSA levels. When the antigen level increase of 20% or more per year
    It must be a thorough investigation. Recently, use
    and measuring the ratio of free and total PSA fraction, reduction
    which suggests a possible malignancy.

    In general, diagnosis
    the level of prostate specific antigen - is extremely necessary
    examination for men over 40 years. And if during the examination level
    PSA greater than 2 ng / ml, then the risk of developing prostate cancer is considered high, so it is necessary an annual preventive care.

    Other survey methods include:

    • urofluometriya
    • prostate biopsy
    • abdominal ultrasound
    • X-ray examinations, including CT scans
    • radioisotope studies
    • magnetic resonance imaging, and others.



    Prostate Cancer Treatment

    how
    and in many other fields of oncology treatment depends
    variety of factors. The first pay attention to step
    disease and the degree of tumor differentiation.

    When local forms
    cancer (no metastasis) following treatment methods are used:

    • Removal of the prostate (radical prostatectomy). deleted
      Prostate with seminal vesicles regional lymph nodes.
      The most popular today laparoscopic surgical technique as
      the least traumatic.
    • External beam radiotherapy. irradiate
      prostate and regional lymph nodes in a dose of from about 40 Gray
      additional primary tumor followed by irradiation to a total
      dose of 70 Gray.
    • Brachytherapy or interstitial radiation
      therapy. The essence of the treatment is the local irradiation of the prostate
      microcapsules radioactive drugs. "Grain" with the drug
      administered under anesthesia special needle directly into the tumor
      fabric, which allows to significantly increase the radiation dose to the tumor and
      reduce the exposure of healthy tissue. treatment and better results
      complications is less than the external radiotherapy.
    • Monotherapy
      antiandrogens. This treatment is rarely used and is carried out
      Patients who do not show other treatments.

    Prostate Cancer Treatment
    with nearby metastases is usually limited to a maximum of androgenic
    blockade comprising antiandrogenic therapy with drug
    operational or castration. Sometimes radiotherapy and shows
    chemotherapy. Common (dissemenirovanny) prostate cancer
    gland amenable, as a rule, only symptomatic or palliative
    therapy. However, the use of radiation therapy and antiangrogennoy
    can significantly improve the quality and duration of life for patients.

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