Multiple myeloma - a Cancerdisease, morphological basis of which are plasma cells. According to available international classification of the disease is characterized by a low degree of malignancy.
Causes of the disease is unknown, but it is known that the environment and ionizing radiation and other harmful factors may be compromising for the disease.
Multiple myeloma is more common in farmers,carpenters, leather workers, and people working with oil. There is also evidence of the existence of a genetic predisposition to the development of multiple myeloma.
The incidence of multiple myeloma worldwideis approximately the same and is 4: 100,000 per year; it increases with age (after 25 years - 30: 100000). Up to 40 years of the disease is rare; half of the patients at diagnosis older than 68 years.
Multiple myeloma - a disease in which thethe transformation of plasma cells, their proliferation of bone marrow infiltration, destruction of bone tissue and the suppression of normal hematopoiesis.
The clinical picture depends on the severitydisease. With the defeat of the bones are often marked by back pain, chest pain, abnormal problems. The most common symptom of multiple myeloma, which occurs in approximately 70% of patients - pain in the bones. Usually they are located in the edges and spine (pain provoked by the movements). Continuous localized pain in multiple myeloma is usually associated with pathological fracture.
Almost all patients revealed anemia. If extensive bone lesions observed decrease in the level of calcium in the blood. Often there is renal dysfunction. It is also possible to decrease blood clotting of bleeding. One of the terrible defeats is ischemic injury of the central nervous system.
A serious complication of multiple myeloma areand bacterial infections (pneumonia, pyelonephritis, etc.). About a quarter of patients with infections occur early in the disease, more than 75% of them are severe. Tendency to infections associated with impaired immune response caused by the characteristics of the underlying disease.
Only 10% of cases of multiple myeloma flows over the years and is progressing very slowly.
The vast majority of patients requiredtreatment which is aimed at increasing the lifetime, prevention of complications and reducing the severity of symptoms. As a rule, receiving chemotherapy, aimed at suppressing tumor growth, and symptomatic treatment, aimed at the prevention of complications.
Radiation therapy in multiple myeloma is used inmainly for palliation - to reduce pain in lesions of bones, including pathological fractures. Currently available data on the effectiveness of bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of multiple myeloma, which leads to prolonged remission in 25-60% of patients (according to different clinical centers).
It is known that more effectively than in the older age young treatment of this disease.
5-year survival rate for myeloma patients depends on the stage of the process, and 50% at 1, 40% - at 2, and 10-25% - at stage 3 tumors.