Carcinoid tumor is a rare disease. However, modern medicine has accumulated considerable experience in the healing of this disease. About how carcinoid treated, and will be discussed in this article.
Carcinoid tumor: rare, aptly
Carcinoid syndrome was described in early XIX century. Carcinoid tumors are derived from cells of the neuroendocrine system. They are among the rare diseases, constituting 0.1-0.5% of all kinds of tumors, including tumors and gastrointestinal carcinoid found in 4-8% of cases, including in intestinal tumors - 39% -26 appendix % -15% of the rectum, colon - 5-7% -2-4% of the stomach, pancreas -2-3% -10% of the bronchi.
The clinical picture of carcinoid syndrome diverse and depends on the presence and localization of metastases of the primary tumor, the tumor produced by biologically active substances.
A characteristic feature of the carcinoid syndrome isdiscoloration of the skin of the upper half of the body. It becomes red and then starts choking, appears dizziness, palpitations, cold sweat acts, there is a feeling of acute hunger. The patient feels weak, experiencing abdominal pain, diarrhea, then appears on the skin - allergic rashes.
Some patients have redness becomes persistent, appears watery eyes.
Treatment of carcinoid tumors
There are many options for treating carcinoid tumors:
Cryotherapy, the high cut-off, hepatic artery embolization
- Interferon and chemotherapy
- Radiation therapy
- Appointment of medicines to contain the carcinoid syndrome.
Since tumors vary carcinoidsize, their possibility of transforming into malignant, metastatic spread, and other symptoms, and treatment should be prescribed for each patient individually. Due to the fact that carcinoid syndrome and metastatic carcinoid tumors are rare, but their treatment is very difficult and complex, in the treatment of patients with this diagnosis should take doctors-gastroenterologists participate, oncologists, radiologists, cardiologists and surgeons, experienced doctors working in health centers, which are equipped with the necessary equipment for the treatment of carcinoid tumors.
Some patients with unresectablecarcinoid tumors may not have any symptoms, and can also be of carcinoid syndrome. Such patients can be inspected without surgery or medication because carcinoid tumors grow slowly and symptoms in patients may not develop for a long time.
Surgery is used in the following cases:
- clinically radical resection;
- alleviation of symptoms, such as small bowel obstruction or intestinal bleeding;
- reducing the size of tumors that do not fullyremoved, a process which is called a decrease in tumor volume, a decrease in tumor size and boundaries of reducing the amount of hormones produced by the tumors.
Carcinoid tumors are intestinalbenign and often completely cured. Gastric carcinoid tumors of the first type and is usually benign, they can be removed. Small appendicular carcinoid tumors are usually removed and sometimes treated with the help of an appendectomy.
Thin carcinoid tumors and colonusually have large size and the time of their diagnosis already appear metastases. Surgical intervention in these tumors, most patients does not help, because when surgical intervention is impossible to remove the tumor completely. Sometimes the patient may experience isolated metastasis in some part of the liver. Such patients can do surgery to remove the tumor and removing the part of the liver, which shocked the tumor (partial hepatectomy).
But there is a very small amount ofPatients with multiple hepatic metastases. In such cases, partial hepatectomy can not be applied because of the strong spread of the tumor. A small number of patients successfully transferred liver transplantation.