Multiple myeloma (multiple myeloma) -the most common bone tumor in adults. The average age of its appearance - 65 years, the incidence increases with age. The tumor usually shows multiple foci in multiple bones of the skeleton.
The basis of the tumor are plasma cellswhich normally are involved in the immune response to synthesize protective antibodies (immunoglobulins) in response to any antigen entering the body. When the number of multiple myeloma plasma cells in the bone marrow becomes excessive. These cells produce large amounts of a specific protein, which resembles normal antibodies. This protein is detected in blood and urine, and also deposited in internal organs.
In myeloma, X-ray examinationidentifies multiple "holes" in the bones of the skull, ribs. Since the action aimed at the tumor normal bone destruction and leaching therefrom of calcium and phosphorus, this leads to increased bone fragility.
Renal disease - a key symptom of multiple myeloma - and it manifests itself in the amyloid deposits and occurrence of kidney stones.
Another important clinical manifestationmultiple myeloma will be repeated infections. This happens because of the imperfect synthesis of immunoglobulin in the displacement of a tumor from normal bone marrow cells.
Final confirmation of the diagnosis of the tumor givesbone marrow puncture and histological examination. This procedure allows to see the tumor cells. Typical for multiple myeloma is a picture of the "eggs" in the bone marrow - the abundance of cells with a large dark nucleus, reminiscent yolk fried egg.
In the treatment of multiple myeloma is usedpharmacotherapy, combining drugs 3-5, depending on the degree of activity of the tumor, the presence of significant anemia and bone lesions. In some cases, use of bone marrow transplantation, radiotherapy as well as - for the local treatment of bone pain syndromes.