unfriendly neighborhood

Content

  • sketch
  • Dangerous road
  • The thing is clear that it is dark ...
  • Lost in translation
  • There is an exit!
  • heading


  • With age, the baby becomes more active,It gets to all places in the apartment or house, because of which increases the risk of problems. At the age of 1.5-3 years, the likelihood of infestation reaches almost 100%! By the way, which is why the disease caused by worms, considered one of the most popular in the world.



    sketch

    Worms (helminths scientifically) is calledparasitic worms and their larvae. The number of species that may be present in the human body is quite large, but fortunately, most of them very rare. In the European part of Russia itself are more likely to find the so-called intestinal nematodes or round worms (Ascaris, pinworm), living in the gut. Less common are parasites that live outside of the intestine or in the wall (hookworm, American hookworm, Trichinella, intestinal ugritsa). Very rarely - trematodes (flukes) and tape worms (cestodes): they threaten only those children who eat raw or poorly-done / or fish-cooked meat, unwashed fruits and vegetables, drinking water from rivers and other water bodies. Since 90% of cases occur in children ascariasis and enterobiosis (a disease caused by pinworms), dwell on them in detail.

    unfriendly neighborhood Ascaris - Round white worms, pink orbeige translucent length from a few millimeters up to 30-40 centimeters. This type of worms is mainly in the small intestine, not attached to the wall and it constantly makes movement in the opposite direction of the food. That's why is difficult to detect roundworm in feces. From time to time in the contents of the pot are microscopic eggs of worms, which are not visible to the naked eye. Without treatment, Ascaris can live in the intestines of several years.

    Pinworms - small, up to 1 cm, often curvedparasites whitish color. They live in the lower small intestine and colon, so they are more likely than ascarids, found in the feces. At night, pinworms are selected on the skin, which folds lay eggs. The girls they can creep into the vulva, irritating and infecting mucosal bacteria, protozoa, fungi, ie, all those that bring with them parasites of the intestine. Pinworm life is short - about 1.5 months, but due to the large number of eggs laid, their number is constantly growing, and without treatment, the disease can last for years.

    Where are the worms? The child's body get the eggs or larvae of microscopic parasites are very resistant to environmental influences: it is known that they both can be quite a long wait in the wings while on the ground, on the surface of objects or products, linen folds in the skin, under the nails. When the eggs of worms penetrate the mouth, they are some of the losses pass through the acidic, aggressive environment of the stomach and are activated in the intestine, where there are all conditions for their development.

    Very young children are often infected with worms,because they are poorly developed protective barriers of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, because of their age, they do not always respect the rules of hygiene.



    Dangerous road

    Surprisingly, the baby can be infectedworms at home, in a clinic or kindergarten, because in all the rooms is what serves as an excellent refuge for vermin: street shoes, not perfectly clean floor in the hallway, toys, common areas. "Relationship" with worms often happens on the street, if a child picks up from the earth curious objects, playing in the sandbox. Danger are animals, especially stray or domestic, it happens on the street. Carriers parasite eggs are insects - flies, cockroaches, ants. In addition, the "bomb" waiting to happen may be in the dust, for vegetables, fruits, herbs and water. Great risk of worms, if adults and children do not comply with all the known rules of hygiene: do not wash their hands with soap, eat dirty vegetables or fruit, drink unboiled water from rivers and other water bodies.

    The more dangerous worms?

    • They are the cause of any disturbances in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract: constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, problems with the liver or pancreas.
    • Because of them, the child may have an allergy,weaken immunity, signs of intoxication (poisoning) of the body appear: for example, due to a disorder of the nervous system, the child begins to grit his teeth, he develops cramps.
    • Worms can aggravate health problems that arose before they appeared (for example, increase atopic dermatitis), and also serve as a starting point for hereditary diseases.



    The thing is clear that it is dark ...

    How do you know that the child has worms? It happens that my mother, considering the contents of the pot, shows live or fixed parasites (often pinworms). In addition, eggs of Ascaris is found in fecal or reveal enterobiosis by making a special study - scraping. But most of all about the appearance of the problems have to guess on circumstantial evidence.

    • The baby drools heavily, he chokes on food(or makes him sick), does not want to eat, or, on the contrary, constantly asks for supplements. Sometimes the child complains of pain around the umbilicus or cannot accurately indicate in which part of the abdomen it occurs, his chair periodically or constantly gets upset (diarrhea or constipation occurs). In addition, the baby quickly gets tired, it often hurts or is dizzy, his face turns pale, and blue circles appear under his eyes. All these symptoms indicate poisoning of the body.
    • Some analyzes also indirectly confirmthe presence of worms: persistent intestinal dysbiosis, low hemoglobin, a large number of eosinophils in the blood (normal up to 5%), an increased ESR in the general blood test.
    • In case worms have causedallergies, skin manifestations (for example, atopic dermatitis) come to the fore, which, as a rule, are not very well treated. By the way, if a child older than a year suddenly has an allergy, most likely he will have worms.
    • As for enterobiosis, especially for himdiscomfort in the anus and external genitalia in girls and all associated problems are characteristic. Due to the "expansion" of pinworms in the evening, the child becomes too excitable, naughty, falls asleep badly, cannot find a place for a long time, tosses and turns. At night, he cries out, wakes up, twitches, grinds his teeth (if these symptoms are not characteristic of daytime sleep and happen every 10-15 days, it is possible to speak about enterobiasis). Plus, the baby may complain of itching in the perineum, which is often manifested by too much interest of a very small child in this part of the body, redness in the anus. And, as mentioned above, in girls enterobiosis can be accompanied by inflammation of the external genital organs.



    Lost in translation

    Again: detect worms difficult. Especially if only one test for this purpose to assign the child.

    After all, to be found in the feces parasite eggs need to coincide several conditions:

    • worms at this moment should lay their eggs (the interval between egg laying can reach from 3-5 days to 2 weeks);
    • it is necessary to investigate the fecal station, where the larvae are;
    • worm eggs still need to be discerned: alas, in outpatient clinics ascaris and 2-3 other types of helminths are usually recognized, while in the middle band they are found at least 20.

    Regarding appeared recentlyassays for determination of antibodies to parasites in the blood, they too are not completely reliable. It is believed that by diagnosing detected only 1 out of 100 cases of infection by worms.


    There is an exit!

    "What to do? - you ask. - Do physicians have no way to control pests "Of course there is: nowadays there are safe anthelmintics that kill helminths and not affected at the same time on the human body?. That is why doctors often prescribe drugs to children from worms after discovering he had no direct evidence and indirect evidence of the disease. By the way, on the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), all parents twice a year (spring and late autumn) should carry out preventive treatment of children from 1.5 to 7 years, even if they do not have signs and symptoms of the disease. If any signs of the emergence of parasites still attract your attention, you should always consult a doctor: it happens that they indicate not only the presence of worms, and other ailments. In case of detection of worms is not necessary to self-medicate: anthelmintic drugs selected without consulting a doctor, may be ineffective.



    heading

    Can we say with confidence that the drugsagainst the worms are safe? Yes, if the patient complies with the prescribed dosage of a physician, who, incidentally, does not always correspond to the requirements of the instructions (for example, nonabsorbable drugs are higher than recommended). However, in response to receiving the funds may occur side effects associated with the destruction of the parasites. We are talking about diarrhea, slight abdominal pain, sometimes vomiting, temperature rise, unpleasant sensations in the mouth. However, to get rid of these afflictions is very simple: just give the baby activated carbon or laktofiltrum.

    There is a list of safe anthelminticmedicines, compiled by WHO. It consists of four drugs that are prescribed and young Russians: levamisole, mebendazole, pyrantel, albendazole. Experts have proven that the best results can be achieved through comprehensive courses, consisting of two or three drugs.

    In some cases, after the detection of worms inchild or have someone from the family members (especially if it is pinworms, or dwarf tapeworm), you need to treat the whole family as possible. In addition, you will need to be boiled and ironed on both sides of the bed and a private laundry. If the child is found ascariasis, such measures are not necessary.

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