What ascariasis

Content

  • ascariasis
  • Symptoms and flow of ascariasis
  • Complications of ascariasis
  • Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ascariasis



  • ascariasis

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthiasis, distributed around the earth
    ball.

    The causative agent - the human Ascaris (Ascaris lumbricoides), round
    helminth. Adults have a spindle shape. Live or just
    Stand out from the intestinal roundworm reddish-yellow color, after the death become
    whitish. Male much smaller than the female, with a length of 15-25 cm and the rear end of the body
    bent hook. The female has a straight body length of 25-40 cm and 3-6 mm in thickness.

    The man in the gut which are parasitic females and males of Ascaris is
    the only source of infection. A mature female roundworm can lay up
    245,000 eggs per day. In the external environment with the feces stand out immature eggs of worms,
    ripening occurs at a temperature conducive to the development and humidity.
    The larva inside the egg matures within 9-42 days at an optimum temperature - 24-30 ° C. The mobile larva, formed in the egg, moulting and commits only
    then becomes invasive (infecting) the ability. Infection with human
    It occurs by ingestion of mature eggs, vegetables primary importance, on the surface
    which are particles of the soil. A certain danger for spreading
    ascariasis are horticultural areas, where soil fertilizer sometimes
    used human feces.

    Once swallowed and enters the small intestine of mature eggs larvae,
    are introduced into the intestinal wall and enter the blood vessels. With the current
    larvae blood to the liver and lungs (migration step 6-8 weeks), and
    they can also get into the brain, eyes and other organs. In the lungs the larva
    actively entering into the alveoli and bronchioles, promoted by small and large bronchi
    via ciliary epithelium to the oropharynx, where the ingestion of larvae
    with phlegm. Getting back to the intestine during the larva reaches 70-75 days
    sexual maturity (intestinal stage 8 weeks after infection). duration
    adult roundworm life reaches, after which it takes place and at the death
    it is removed with the feces out.



    Symptoms and flow of ascariasis

    What ascariasis
    Manifestations depend on ascariasis vermin localization.
    The clinical course of ascariasis distinguish two phases - early (migration) and
    late (intestinal). In the migration phase of the manifestations of the disease ascariasis little
    expressed, it goes unnoticed. Sometimes the onset of the disease is manifested with the expressed
    malaise, there is a dry cough, or a small number of mucous
    sputum, rarely mucopurulent. Sputum sometimes becomes orange color
    and it has a small admixture of blood. The body temperature is usually normal or low-grade
    (Up to 38 ° C). It is very typical for this stage, the skin changes that often
    It appears as urticaria and fine bubbles with clear content to
    hands and feet.

    When X-ray light detected round, stellate,
    polygonal infiltrates. Infiltrates can be either single or multiple,
    found in one portion or across the lung.

    The intestinal phase of ascariasis is associated with a stay in the intestines of worms. Sometimes
    it flows without severe symptoms, most patients notice improved
    fatigue, change in appetite (decrease), nausea, sometimes vomiting, pain
    abdomen. Pains occur in the upper part of the abdomen, around the navel or below right
    and have cramping in nature. Some patients are diarrhea, others
    constipation or diarrhea alternating with constipation. From the nervous system in ascariasis
    common headache, dizziness, mental fatigue. observed
    restless sleep, night terrors, dizziness, seizures, hysterical seizures,
    convulsions. In some cases, there are changes in the eye - extension
    pupils, pupils of different sizes, photophobia, decreased visual acuity. by
    cardiovascular system in some patients there is a decrease ascaridiasis
    blood pressure. Sometimes stay ascarids in the intestine causes
    occurrence of asthma and bronchitis.



    Complications of ascariasis

    bowel obstruction, which is caused by the closure of the lumen
    tangle of intestines of Ascaris; askaridozny appendicitis; ascariasis liver and bile
    tract (cholangiohepatitis) with the development; inflammation of the bile ducts - purulent
    cholangitis and multiple liver abscesses; ascariasis pancreas development
    acute pancreatitis; ascaris entering the airways development suffocation
    (Asphyxia).



    Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ascariasis

    In the migration phase - detection of Ascaris larvae in the sputum;
    Detection of specific antibodies in the blood via immunological reactions.
    The intestinal disease stage the main method is to research on the stool
    of Ascaris eggs. If eggs are found in duodenal contents it may
    indicate the presence of parasites in the biliary and pancreatic ducts.

    For the expulsion of Ascaris applied Piperazine adipate, Pyrantel
    and Levamisole (Dekaris). An effective means of ascariasis is oxygen,
    it is administered by gavage in the morning on an empty stomach or 3-4 hours after breakfast
    2-3 days in a row. The amount of oxygen per session - 1500 ml after administration
    oxygen the patient must lie down for 2 hours. Oxygen is contraindicated in peptic ulcer
    disease and inflammatory abdominal diseases.
    Piperazine adipate administered 2 times a day 1 hour before or after 30-60 minutes
    after a meal for 2 consecutive days at a dose of 1.5-2 g per reception, daily dose is
    3-4 of

    Currently piperazine instead prefer to be given orally once
    Levamisole (Dekaris) at a dose of 150 mg after meals. Pyrantel (Kombantrin, Gelmintoks,
    Nemotsid) is assigned to inside during or after eating at a dose of 10 mg / kg body weight.
    Tablet before swallowing should be thoroughly chewed.

    It is necessary to protect the soil gardens, orchards and berry
    fecal contamination, wash hands thoroughly before eating, thoroughly wash and scald
    boiling vegetables and fruits before eating.

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