It should be borne in mind that even with the sameweight and degree of physiological immaturity premature babies may differ significantly in their state, adaptive capacity and ability to absorb nutrients.
Protein needs of premature infantsrelatively high. However, when excessive administered with food, can develop toxic effects due to the immaturity of metabolic processes. Therefore, the amount of protein in the 1st month should be 2.5-3 g / kg body weight, for children older than 1 month - 3-3.5 g / kg.
The need for preterm fat is nearlythe same as in term (in the first half - 6.5-7 g / kg in the second half of the year - 6,5-5,5 g / kg), although their utilization is limited. Due to the mixture of vegetable and animal fats should be provided 40 - 50% of the caloric needs of the organism.
The need for carbohydrates is also close to the needs of term infants and is 12-14 g / kg body weight.
Premature babies need is high in calciumand phosphorus as it is an active mineralization of the skeleton. Often (already the 2nd month of life) is developing iron deficiency. Due to the high intensity of metabolism such children require increased amounts of vitamins.
The recommendations of the American Pediatric Association demand a premature baby (. 800-1200g at a mass body) it is:
- energy of 130 kcal / kg of body weight per day,
- in proteins - 4 g / kg,
- mineral substances, respectively: sodium - 80 mg / kg -97 mg potassium / kg phosphorus - 140 mg / kg, calcium - 280mg / Kg, magnesium - 10 mg / kg body weight.
In very preterm infants (1500g or less)there may be no sucking and swallowing reflexes. In such cases, the first child of 1-2 weeks by gavage feeding. When the sucking reflex of the child applied to the chest, and with the active sucking - feed the baby only breast. Since suckling requires a premature baby high energy costs, it is recommended before and after feeding the baby to do 3-5 minutes of inhalation of humidified oxygen. Typically, premature babies nursed in hospitals in special units, until not gain weight over 2,000 - 25,000 g, and only then sent home.
Typically, preterm infants are fed 7-8 times, very preterm to 10 times per day. With increasing body weight reduce the number of feedings to 6.
For feeding preterm infants usingVarious adapted formulas. Good use for feeding premature infants acidophilus variants of these mixtures, blends and milk enriched with special biologically active additives.
Between feedings during the night breaka premature baby in small portions given liquid. The need for it is 200 - 250 ml / kg body weight (more than 80% due to milk or mixture). Typically, in addition to milk yield a mixture of saline and 5% glucose solution in the ratio 1: 1.
With months of age is recommended vegetable broth. The nutrition of preterm infants important to provide for the early introduction of complementary foods and juices to meet their increased needs for vitamins and mineral salts. Juices begin to give children from 3-4 weeks of age at a gradually increasing dosage after a meal (as well as full-term children).
With the 2-month old premature babymust receive a fruit puree, starting from 1/2 teaspoon to 50g - in the first half of the year and up to 100g - the end of the year. Egg yolks provide a 3 - months of age (as well as full-term children). The first solid foods in the form of vegetable puree begin to 4 months.
In order to prevent anemia 4-5 monthsage is recommended to give mashed meat and liver. In the 5 months are beginning to lure a second dairy porridge, with 7-8 months introduced three complementary foods - dairy products (yogurt, acidophilus milk, etc.).
To achieve the proper development of prematurebaby, you need to regularly monitor the growth of body weight, and in a timely manner to carry out the power correction. power calculation should be performed at least once a month, and on a bad gain in weight - weekly.