What is Down syndrome?


  • Disease or syndrome?
  • The extra chromosome
  • What distinguishes the baby with Down syndrome to other children?

    What is Down syndrome? Disease or syndrome?

    Down syndrome - one of the most common genetic disorders. The frequency of birth of such children is about one newborn at 600-800.

    In our country the term is most often used"Down syndrome". And often it said that it is "incurable disease." Some experts say that there is even a two diagnoses: Down syndrome and Down syndrome. They claim that the condition of the child depends on whether it has a disease or syndrome. Such statements are extremely incorrect and even absurd.

    Down syndrome is not a disease. The word "syndrome" refers to a specific set of features or characteristics. The first signs of people with this deviation has described the English physician John Langdon Down (Down) in 1866. His name and served as the name for this syndrome. However, only in 1959 the French scientist Jerome Lejeune (Lejeune) discovered the reason that causes the disease - it is an extra chromosome.

    The extra chromosome

    Every cell in the human body normally contains46 chromosomes that carry the signs that people inherit from their parents, and are arranged in pairs - half from the mother, half from the father. People with Down syndrome in the 21 th pair there is extra chromosome, ie, there is a so-called trisomy, therefore, is on chromosome 47 in the cells of the body. The diagnosis of "Down's syndrome" can be supplied only by a physician-geneticist with a blood test.

    Extra chromosome appears as a result ofrandomness in the formation of the egg or sperm or during the first cell division that follows fertilization (ie when the egg and sperm fuse). It is still not formed a clear opinion about what is the cause of this genetic abnormality. Children with Down syndrome are born with the same frequency in all countries, regardless of wealth or environmental levels - in families, academics and builders, and the presidents of the unemployed. The appearance of a child with Down syndrome is not dependent on lifestyle, ethnicity, level of education or social status of parents. Draw "guilt" in the birth of this baby no.

    What distinguishes the baby with Down syndrome to other children?

    The presence of the extra chromosomeIt causes the appearance of a number of physiological characteristics, due to which the child will be slower than its peers, develop and pass common to all stages of child development.

    It used to be that all people with this diagnosishave severe mental retardation and is not amenable to training. Modern research shows that almost all people with Down syndrome are lagging behind in development, but within this group their intellectual level is very different - from small gap to moderate to severe. Still, most of the sick children can learn to walk, talk, read, write and, in general, making the most of what they can do other guys just need to provide them with adequate living environment and appropriate training programs. In our country the idea of ​​people with Down syndrome are rather mythical than real, and the attitude towards them is often the opposite.

    Some argue that people with Down syndrome are alwaysaggressive, often of a sexual nature. However, their aggression can be directed even to close family members, since they are so stupid that they can not distinguish, for example, the parents of the other people, they can not teach chemu-libo and their behavior, even in adulthood, there will always be inadequate .

    Another view is completely the opposite: These people are always very kind, cheerful, sociable, love to sing and dance and can even become dancers and musicians, despite the fact that the level of intelligence they have extremely low.

    Truth a little in both the first and secondapproval. Individuals with Down's syndrome, despite the outward similarity differ from each other as well as people with no diagnosis. They have different mental abilities, behavior and physical development. Each person has a unique personality, individuality, and even talent. They are a lot like their parents, and, like any other, has its own character and temperament.

    People with Down syndrome are much betterdevelop their abilities, if they are living at home, in an atmosphere of love, if they are engaged in child early intervention program if they receive special education, proper medical care and feel a positive attitude to their society.

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