Pulmonary edema: quick facts


  • Pulmonary edema: as it happens
  • What causes pulmonary edema
  • Pulmonary edema - diagnosis. What will be suspected pulmonary edema
  • confirms the diagnosis
  • Methods of dealing with edema

  • Pulmonary edema: as it happens

    When pulmonary edema in spaces outsidepulmonary vascular fluid collects. In a variation of edema, so-called cardiogenic pulmonary edema, exudation of fluid pressure caused by an increase in the pulmonary veins and capillaries. As a complication of heart disease, pulmonary edema can become chronic, but it happens, and acute pulmonary edema, which is developing rapidly and in a short time can cause a patient's death.

    What causes pulmonary edema

    Pulmonary edema: quick factsPulmonary edema is usually caused by failurethe left ventricle, the main chambers of the heart resulting from heart disease. Under certain heart diseases for filling of the left ventricle requires more pressure to ensure adequate blood flow to all parts of the body. Accordingly, the pressure in the other chambers of the heart and the pulmonary veins and capillaries. Gradually propotevaet of the blood in the space between the lung tissues. This prevents the expanded lungs and disturbs them occurring in the gas exchange.

    In addition to heart disease, there are other factors that predispose to pulmonary edema:

    • excessive amount of blood in the veins;
    • certain kidney diseases, extensive burns, liver trouble, lack of nutrients;
    • violation of lymphatic drainage from the lungs, as observed in Hodgkin's disease;
    • decrease in blood flow from the left upper chamber of the heart (eg, narrowing of the mitral valve);
    • disorders that cause blockage of the pulmonary veins.

    Pulmonary edema - diagnosis. What will be suspected pulmonary edema

    The symptoms in the early stages of pulmonary edema reflect poor lung smoothing and shaping transudate. These include:
    • dyspnea;
    • sudden onset of respiratory distress (respiratory failure, seizures) after several hours of sleep;
    • shortness of breath, which is facilitated in a sitting position;
    • cough.

    Also it should be alerted - rapid pulse, rapid breathing, abnormal sounds when listening, jugular vein and deviation from normal heart sounds.

    If a strong pulmonary edema when alveolarsacs and small airways are filled with fluid, the patient's condition deteriorates. Breathing quickens, it becomes difficult, coughing stands frothy sputum with blood. The pulse quickens, broken heart rhythms, the skin becomes cold, sticky and acquires a bluish tint, increased sweating. As the heart pumps less and less blood, the blood pressure falls, the pulse becomes thready.

    confirms the diagnosis

    Diagnosis is based on symptoms andphysical examination, then assigned to study gases in arterial blood, which usually shows a decrease in the oxygen content. This may show up as disorders of acid-base balance and acid-base balance, as well as metabolic acidosis (an increase in the endogenous formation of acids).

    Chest radiography is typically detected in diffuse light and shade often cardiac hypertrophy and excess fluid in the lungs.

    In some cases, for diagnostic purposespulmonary artery catheterization is used, which allows to confirm the failure of the left ventricle and eliminate adult respiratory distress syndrome, the symptoms of which are similar to the symptoms of pulmonary edema.

    Methods of dealing with edema

    Treatments aimed at reducing the amount of fluid in the lungs, improve gas exchange and heart function, as well as treating the underlying disease.

    As a rule, give the patient breathing mixtures withhigh oxygen content. If an acceptable level of oxygen can not support, to improve the supply of oxygen to tissues and restore acid-base balance using mechanical ventilation.

    The patient may also assign diuretics (eg, Lasix) for removing fluid from the urine, which in turn reduces the amount of extravascular fluid.

    For treatment of cardiac dysfunction in some casesappoint glycosides digitalis and other tools that extend the artery (eg, niprid). Morphine can be used for removal of the alarm condition to facilitate breathing and blood circulation improved.

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