In addition to heart disease, there are other factors that predispose to pulmonary edema:
- excessive amount of blood in the veins;
- certain kidney diseases, extensive burns, liver trouble, lack of nutrients;
- violation of lymphatic drainage from the lungs, as observed in Hodgkin's disease;
- decrease in blood flow from the left upper chamber of the heart (eg, narrowing of the mitral valve);
- disorders that cause blockage of the pulmonary veins.
- sudden onset of respiratory distress (respiratory failure, seizures) after several hours of sleep;
- shortness of breath, which is facilitated in a sitting position;
Also it should be alerted - rapid pulse, rapid breathing, abnormal sounds when listening, jugular vein and deviation from normal heart sounds.
If a strong pulmonary edema when alveolarsacs and small airways are filled with fluid, the patient's condition deteriorates. Breathing quickens, it becomes difficult, coughing stands frothy sputum with blood. The pulse quickens, broken heart rhythms, the skin becomes cold, sticky and acquires a bluish tint, increased sweating. As the heart pumps less and less blood, the blood pressure falls, the pulse becomes thready.
Chest radiography is typically detected in diffuse light and shade often cardiac hypertrophy and excess fluid in the lungs.
In some cases, for diagnostic purposespulmonary artery catheterization is used, which allows to confirm the failure of the left ventricle and eliminate adult respiratory distress syndrome, the symptoms of which are similar to the symptoms of pulmonary edema.
As a rule, give the patient breathing mixtures withhigh oxygen content. If an acceptable level of oxygen can not support, to improve the supply of oxygen to tissues and restore acid-base balance using mechanical ventilation.
The patient may also assign diuretics (eg, Lasix) for removing fluid from the urine, which in turn reduces the amount of extravascular fluid.
For treatment of cardiac dysfunction in some casesappoint glycosides digitalis and other tools that extend the artery (eg, niprid). Morphine can be used for removal of the alarm condition to facilitate breathing and blood circulation improved.