Typically, bronchitis develops after acuterespiratory infection or cold, and because we are sick with colds every year, most of us have had an episode of bronchitis at least once in their lifetime. With appropriate treatment of bronchitis passes in a few days, leaving no consequences, while the cough can last three weeks or more. If you are sick with bronchitis several times during the year, it may indicate the development of a more serious condition - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The state described by this term, is a group of diseases, devastating effects on lung tissue. These include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by cough with phlegm that lasts most of the month, at least three months a year and in two years, assuming no other reasons that can cause cough (WHO recommendations).
Symptoms of bronchitis
The main symptom of bronchitis is a coughdetachable yellowish-gray or greenish phlegm. In some cases the sputum is mixed with blood. Released during expectoration unpainted or having a white color mucus is not a sign of a bacterial infection. It is important to remember that cough - this is one of the most important protective functions of the body. Its role is to purify the airways. However, the only useful wet, productive cough, phlegm with which the liquid can be easily removed.
The normal bronchi produces about 30 gramsmucous secretion daily. Made mucus barrier and performs a protective function. It protects the surface of the bronchi of the damage, moisturizes and warms inhaled air, allows the removal of foreign particles. Biologically active substances contained in the mucus, increase the local immunity of the bronchi.
Infectious pathogens (viruses, bacteria,mushrooms) or non-infectious (dust, pollen, components of aerosols) cause damage to the bronchial mucosa cells. Inflammation occurs, in which the amount of mucus produced increases in several times, and its viscosity increases. Accumulation of mucus leads to difficulty breathing and impaired lung function. In addition, the mucous secretion serves as a perfect breeding ground for the growth of microorganisms.
In addition to cough, bronchitis symptoms are:
- spasm and pain sensation in the throat,
- shortness of breath, wheezing, - low-grade fever.
Causes of bronchitis
Viruses that cause acute respiratory infections or colds mayand cause acute bronchitis, but the feature of inflammation of the bronchial tree (as mentioned above) is the possibility of joining a secondary bacterial infection.
Sometimes it helps to develop bronchitis inhalationtobacco smoke, dust, toxic gases, and hydrochloric acid, which is at such a gastroesophageal reflux disease goes from the stomach into the esophagus and the larynx.
Risk factors in the development of bronchitis
The risk of acute bronchitis or transitionits chronic form increases several times if you are a smoker or a passively inhale tobacco smoke. This particularly applies to children whose parents smoke. In this case, besides bronchitis in children increased risk of SARS, asthma and pneumonia. When your immune system is weakened acute or chronic disease risk of bronchitis also increases.
If you are working in areas with highdust content in the air, such as cotton, as well as chemicals, acids, alkalis, peroxides, the risk of developing bronchopulmonary diseases increases.
When to call a doctor?
If you have a cough, with opaquephlegm, sore throat or discomfort, mild fever, and the symptoms persist for 2-3 days, you should always consult a doctor. You should be especially careful, if you have such related diseases as asthma or heart failure.
If you frequently recurring bronchitis,consult a doctor. Perhaps you live in ecologically unfavorable regions, or working in hazardous environments. With full information, the doctor can prescribe the most effective treatment.
Methods of diagnosis of bronchitis
The specialist usually listens viastethoscope your bronchi and lungs. To exclude more serious diseases, such as pneumonia, it can be assigned to X-rays. Also it carried out sputum analysis necessary to identify the causative agent.
Treatment of bronchitis
Depending on severity of the diseasethe doctor will prescribe you medication and or non-drug therapy. Most often appointed inhalation, massage, physiotherapy, physical therapy and medication, reducing sputum viscosity and improve expectoration (expectorants and mucolytics), immunomodulators, antibiotics. Very rarely can prescribe drugs that suppress the cough.
Often, doctors recommend medication,prepared on the basis of plants - herbal. Bronchitis useful decoctions mother and stepmother, rosemary, Elecampane, black radish juice with honey, the juice of plantain, fruit extract of anise and thyme, combined herbal preparations, such as Bronhikum. Take herbal necessary every 3 hours, strictly observing the therapeutic dose, as overdose can cause vomiting. Do not, however, overestimate the importance and possibilities of herbal medicine. If on the 3-4th day of illness cough becomes wet and sputum is still difficult, it is necessary to begin treatment with modern synthetic mucolytic drugs, which will assign you to a doctor (eg, bromhexine).
Antibiotics for bronchitis is not appointedalways. The need for their use can be determined only by the doctor. It all depends on the severity, the nature of the pathogen and disease duration. Until now no effective antiviral drug.
To treatment without the use of medicines include the following activities:
- drinking plenty of fluids to liquefy the sputum,
- complete rest,
- air conditioning in the room where you are (the air as much as possible should be moist and clean).
In the complex treatment of the disease is also useful a gentle massage of the chest.
Physical movement (but not too active)improve the cleaning of the bronchi of the accumulated mucus and accelerate recovery. Eat light, enough high-calorie food. You need to drink a lot. The body, especially during illness, needs a lot of liquid. It improves the elimination of toxins from the body, promotes liquefaction and removal of phlegm.
Prevention of bronchitis
The following simple tips will help your body to fight infection:
- to fully relax,
- drink plenty of fluids,
- air conditioned room as possible,
- do not smoke,
- if you work for a long time or are in areas with polluted air, wear a protective mask.