Dermatomyositis: Symptoms and Diagnosis


What is dermatomyositis

Dermatomyositis (polymyositis) - is a systemic disease of the skeletal and smooth muscles, and skin. Estimated cause of the disease - viral.
Provoke disease the following factors:
  • cooling,
  • prolonged exposure to the sun,
  • pregnancy,
  • drug intolerance.
In 20-30% of cases dermatomyositis observed in patients with various tumors.
The mechanism of the disease - disorders in the immunestatus. Women suffer in 2 times more often than men, with two peaks of age (puberty, menopause). Family genetic predisposition.

Symptoms of dermatomyositis

Dermatomyositis: Symptoms and DiagnosisThe disease begins more or less acute withlesions of the musculoskeletal system (muscle weakness, muscle pain), pain in the joints, fever, skin lesions (various rashes, itching, patchy redness, excessive actinic reinforced or dramatically reduced pigmentation, calcium deposits in the skin or subcutaneous fat ), dense widespread edema.

Later becomes recurrent diseaseflow. Progressive destruction of skeletal muscle - they are painful on motion and at rest, pain increases when pressing on them, increases muscle weakness. The muscles of the shoulder and pelvic girdle are sealed, increase in volume, violated their active movements, patients can not sit on their own, to raise his head from the pillow.
The defeat of the facial muscles leads to a masklikeface, pharyngeal and respiratory - to violations of swallowing and breathing, which also complicated by frequent pneumonia. If the eye muscles are affected, the developing double vision, strabismus, bilateral ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid).
Involvement in the process of the heart muscle (myocarditis ormiokardidistrofiya) appears resistant increased heart rate, decrease in pressure, systolic appearance of noise can lead to heart failure. One third of patients - Raynaud's phenomenon (blanching of fingers and blue when cooling). Reduced or no appetite, there are abdominal pain, may develop gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal obstruction.
There are 3 forms of flow of dermatomyositis:
  • acute with the rapid development of symptoms (may end in death within 36 months due to severe damage to the lungs and cardiovascular system.);
  • subacute;
  • chronic.

Diagnosis of dermatomyositis

Detection is carried out on the basis of biochemical analysis of blood and urine, but the main role is played by the detection of specific changes in muscle biopsies.

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