Prolonged exposure to cold air orCold water is fraught with general hypothermia. Most hypothermia occurs in winter, when the thermometer shows minus hard, but it is quite possible, and at zero temperature air, windy weather and high humidity.
Supercooled promote wet clothes, alcohol intoxication, physical exhaustion, poor health as a result of illness or injury.
Pereohlazhdenie primarily characterized by a reduction in body temperature below 34 0C and the inhibition of the body's vital functions.
There are three levels of general hypothermia
Skin and visible mucous membranes become pale withbluish tint, appear chills, "goose bumps." It slows down, as they say in such cases, "a tooth were chattering." The body temperature is reduced to 32-34 0C, heart rate slows down to 60-66 beats per minute,wherein the blood pressure is normal or slightly increased. Sometimes accompanied by slight hypothermia minor frostbite - one must be very careful not to miss the cold injury.
The average degree of supercooling
The victim braked, sleepy, now and thentrying to fall asleep, which is categorically not be allowed during the sleep of the internal energy production is sharply reduced and the person may die. Bluish skin, sometimes with marble pattern, blue lips and nails, body temperature 29-32 0C, heart rate of 50-60 beats per minute, blood pressure decreases, slows down and becomes shallow breathing (8-12 times per minute).
Symptoms of hypothermia are often complemented by symptoms of frostbite of hands, feet and face varying degrees of severity.
At this stage, the victim's body temperature less than 31 0With a Chance of frostbite of the limbs and face 3-4degree, lost consciousness, often observed vomiting and convulsions, breathing barely perceptible, 3-4 times per minute, pulse hardly detectable, heart rate less than 36 beats per minute.
What can be done when supercooling
- Take a hot bath or shower, warm the frostbitten parts of the body with hot water.
- Rub the skin with alcohol, fat, towel, the more snow - Blood flow to the skin trigger a "steal" vital organs and aggravate circulatory problems.
- Use to warm the victim open flames, hot objects, put him in the oven and the battery.
What to do in case of hypothermia?
- At the first signs of hypothermiayou need to stop heat transfer, that is, get the person out of the cold water, snow, lead to a warm location, remove the frozen wet clothes, put on dry and warm, wrapped in a blanket.
- With a sharp retardation and lack of consciousness, signs of frostbite of 2-4 degree necessary to cause a brigade of "first aid".
- Warms the inside of the victim should be hottea or milk. Do not give coffee and alcohol, they cause dilation of superficial blood vessels and blood flow to the skin, which worsen the blood circulation in the internal organs and aggravate cardiac abnormalities.
- Warming bath. The initial water temperature should not exceed 37 0C, then it should be raised to 40 for 30 minutes 0C. Once the body temperature rises to 34 0With, bathing should be discontinued, the skin dry with a soft towel, put on a dry warm clothes, wrap the victim with a blanket.
- In the field, you can warm the person,propped his body wrapped in bubble cloth with hot water or heated stones. In order to increase the temperature of the blood, warm things better applied to the back of the head, to the axillary and inguinal region. If improvised "warmers" No, you can warm the victim with her body heat.
It should immediately seek medical help if the victim a strong irrepressible trembling, slow breathing, pale cold skin, if it is slowed down, does not answer the questions.
How to avoid the common hypothermia?
- In cold weather clothing should bemulti-layer, the air "gasket" between the layers to help retain heat. Gloves should be double, thin socks should be put on warm, a jacket should be a sweater, shirt and underwear. A good way - thermal underwear and winter special costumes.
- Shoes preferably with thick flexible soles with a wide nose, it should be dry and free, to be able to move his fingers.
- In the open areas of the body and face cause fat cream designed specifically to protect the skin from the cold. From cosmetics should be abandoned or used fatty agents.
- Since when in contact with cold metal skin can cause frostbite, it is better to remove all metal jewelry.
- Do not go out if you feel unwell, and on an empty stomach.
- It is necessary to refuse alcohol and tobacco use.
- In the cold you should try to move, not sit and lie down in the snow.