Anomalies of renal position
Anomalies renal position (dystopia) occurin utero. In utero development of the kidney is put in the pelvis and in the process of development of the fetus moves up to its normal location. However, under the influence of various factors the normal movement of the kidneys may stop at any point. There are pelvic, lumbar, iliac renal dystopia. Anomalies of renal position are fairly common and can not manifest clinically.
Pelvic kidney dystopia
This anomaly does not occur often. At the same time the kidney located in the pelvis. Usually, between the bladder and rectum in men and uterus and rectum in women. When this anomaly in a patient complaint associated with impaired function of organs adjacent to the kidney abnormally located. There are a pain in the rectum, sometimes constipation, pain during intercourse in women, etc. Sometimes a kidney to detect when gynecological examination as a tight formation behind the posterior vaginal vault, or digital examination of the rectum.
Iliac kidney dystopia
This arrangement kidney anomaly occurs frequently and is accompanied by an abnormal increase in the number of renal arteries. At the same time the kidney located in the iliac fossa.
- This anomaly is manifested by pain in the lower abdomen, the abdomen.
- In women, the pain may worsen in the menstrual period.
- Atypical location of the kidney can squeeze any intestine, causing constipation and bowel disorders.
- You may experience nausea, vomiting, flatulence.
All these manifestations are enhanced dramatically when an in dystopic kidney disease (hydronephrosis, urolithiasis, pyelonephritis).
Sometimes, the kidney is felt on palpation of the abdomen and can be mistaken for a tumor of the abdominal cavity or ovarian cysts.
Lumbar kidney dystopia
In this case, the kidney is somewhat lowerits normal position and it extends from the aortic artery is lower than normal. Typically, such a kidney wash basin is rotated forward. Sometimes, the kidney manifested by pain in the lumbar region. When probing the abdomen it can be mistaken for a tumor or omission of normal kidney.
Thoracic kidney dystopia
It occurs very rarely. If this anomaly kidney is located above the aperture and is located in the thoracic cavity. Ureter and renal vessels so much longer than normal. This anomaly may be manifested by pain behind the breastbone, often after a meal. Discovered incidentally during x-ray examinations of education above the diaphragm. Sometimes mistakenly diagnosed lung tumor or diaphragmatic hernia. Set the correct diagnosis helps excretory urography and ultrasonography, which detects kidney in the usual place.
Cross kidney dystopia
Perekresnaya kidney dystopia is rare andcharacterized by movement of one of the kidneys beyond the median line of the body. Thus, both kidneys are on one side of the spine. Very often the two kidneys are fused into one body, but each have their own vessels and ureters. Usually, this anomaly is not manifested clinically, and it is diagnosed by ultrasonography and excretory urography. Surgical treatment is carried out only if there is a disease that requires surgical intervention (hydronephrosis, tumors, urolithiasis, pyelonephritis).
Anomalies renal relationship
This malformation occurs with a frequencyabout 15% of all kidney malformations. It is characterized by the fusion of two kidneys in one, but each has its own kidney vessels and ureters, and the ureters empty into the bladder in the usual place. Kidneys are spliced middle surface (galetoobraznaya kidney). The upper part of one kidney can grow together with the lower part of another kidney, then formed L- or S-shaped kidney.
The incidence of horseshoe kidney about10% of all kidney malformations, is more common in boys and usually accompanied by malformations of other organs. With this kidney abnormalities spliced with each other at their upper or, more often, the lower pole.
Between the kidneys formed an isthmus, whichIt consists of kidney tissue or connective tissue. That kidney is lower than usual and almost immobile. This contributes to more frequent traumatic damage to the kidney in case of injuries of the lumbar region or the abdomen. Often horseshoe kidney does not manifest and the patient is unaware of the existence of this anomaly it.
The main symptoms of horseshoe kidney lungspain due to kidney pressure to adjacent organs. Sometimes there motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Occasionally this kidney can compress the abdominal part of the aorta. Then there are signs of impaired circulation in the lower limbs, numbness, perfrigeration feet. Very rare kidney can compress the inferior vena cava, which leads to venous stasis in the lower limbs, varicose veins, varicose veins in the pelvis. With the passage of time in a horseshoe kidney can develop various diseases. Usually it is urolithiasis, hydronephrosis. There is evidence that the presence of horseshoe kidney increased risk of developing it in the neoplastic process, often in the region of the isthmus.
Surgical treatment of such malformationscarried out at the event in the kidney disease requiring surgical treatment. Sometimes the children, if any kidney manifested by severe pain and kidney isthmus between the narrow, taking the operation to the isthmus dissection and fixation of the kidneys to the normal location. Occasionally, if struck by one half of a horseshoe kidney and its function is almost lost, make the removal of one of the halves of the kidney (nephrectomy).
Fusion kidneys - is an anomaly, which is characterized by the joining of two opposing buds in one body.
This happens because of the merger at the earlieststage of embryonic development. As a result, processes are broken dvivzheniya kidney in the lumbar region and its rotation. Therefore, fused kidneys are located always abnormal. Ingrown ducts takes place without violations, so the structure of the kidneys do not breached and ureters always flow into the bladder in a typical place.
Fusion can be one-sided - I-shapedkidney and bilateral - horseshoe, or galetoobraznaya komoobraznaya, L-shaped kidney. S-shaped kidney, in our view, also applies to unilateral fusion of the kidneys.
Bilateral fusion of the kidneys can be symmetrical or asymmetrical.
With symmetric fusion of the kidneys can be connectedtheir lower poles, rarely - the top, forming a so-called horseshoe kidney, the kidney or the entire surface, creating galetoobraznuyu komoobraznuyu or kidney.
L-shaped kidney occurs when fusion of the lowerone pole and upper pole of the kidney another and transverse arrangement of one of them. S-shaped bud is formed by connecting the lower pole of the one with the upper pole of the other and their vertical arrangement. When the S-shaped kidney, one half cup of kidney turned laterally, the second - medially. If complete rotation of embryonic and both renal calyx directed to one side, a kidney called I-shaped. Thus, I- and S-shaped kidney can be attributed to fusion of unilateral renal.