Siberian ulcer: symptoms, treatment and prevention


  • anthrax
  • Ways of infection of the Siberian ulcer
  • Symptoms of Siberian ulcers
  • Diagnosis of Siberian ulcers
  • Treatment of Siberian ulcers
  • Prevention of Siberian ulcers

  • anthrax

    Siberian ulcer - acute
    Infectious disease that occurs mainly in the form of a skin,
    Significantly less - in the pulmonary and intestinal forms with sepsis phenomena.

    Comes from characteristic ulcerations arising on the skin of the disease.
    Name in Western Literature - Anthrax (Carhuff) - occurs
    from the Latin infection name and characterizes the black flare,
    Covering these ulcerations.

    Siberian ulcer is widespread
    In many countries of Asia, Africa and South America. There is her foci
    And in Russia - in cattle bisps in the Stavropol Territory,
    Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Samara, Kirov, Rostov,
    Kurgan and Oryol regions, Republics of North Ossetia, Chuvashia,
    Buryatia, Chechnya, Tatarstan and T.D.

    This infection belongs
    to zoonoses - that is, a person is ill or from the most infected
    Animal, or from its skins and wool. At the beginning of the century incidence
    Siberian ulcer in Russia was massive. During
    From 1901 to 1910, this severe infection has hit each year more
    16 thousand people.

    Currently, with development
    Sanitary and epidemiological service, with the advent of antibiotics
    The incidence is only sporadic, manifesting only
    sometimes and separate flashes. In Russia, annually registers
    from 15 to 50 cases of Siberian ulcers. It should be noted that practically
    they are all worried, that is, people suffer,
    working with animals.

    Ways of infection of the Siberian ulcer

    Diseases - Bacillus Anthracis - Siberian Bacillus, one
    from the giants in the world of microbes, length 6-10 and 1-2 micron width. Itself
    Bacillus is very unstable in the external environment - quickly dies when
    Heating and using conventional disinfectants.

    She is able to form a dispute with a powerful capsule - and then
    The deception of the pathogen increases by an order. The dispute may be for hours
    be in disinfecting solutions and withstands up to 20 minutes
    Boiling. In this form of bacillus can persist in the ground
    dozen years old.

    It is these features of the causative agent of Siberian
    Ulcers, as well as practically one hundred percent pulmonary mortality
    Diseases allowed to consider the Siberian Bacillus as
    Biological weapons. Genetically modified bacillus, with
    Sustainability genes against the main groups of antibiotics becomes
    formidable weapons and very attracts not only military, but also terrorists.

    Known attempts to infection by the Siberian ulcer of American
    government agencies, however, they failed because of ignorance
    terrorists of the features of similar bacilli
    Biological weapons.

    But experts continue to admit that
    Bacillus of Siberian ulcers can serve as a biological weapon as
    lonely terrorist and group, moreover — more likely than
    Many other bacteria.

    Symptoms of Siberian ulcers

    Penetrates the causative agent into the body through the skin (95%), which leads to development Skin shape Siberian ulcers. When inhalation, the dispute may develop Lung form, By swallowing - intestinal disease.

    The average duration of the incubation period is 2-3 days, oscillations can be from several hours to 8-14 days.

    At Skin form
    The skin of the open parts of the body is amazed, especially with the preceding
    Microtrams. Only fingertips, nail beds are not affected
    And nose skin. The characteristic manifestation of the skin is local
    Changes in the field of infection - the formation of a symbolic

    Siberian ulcer: symptoms, treatment and prevention
    After 2-3 days from the date of implementation
    The causative agent in the skin on its surface is formed small, but strongly
    itching red spot, which soon turns into a dense
    Nodules - Papul. The process proceeds quickly, and after a few hours
    At the top of Papula arises Pustula - a bubble, which gradually
    Filled in purulent content. Then pustula bursts and in her place
    dead cloths remain in the form of a black strip, according to resembling
    Coal (which gave the disease Latin name - Anthrax, that is, coal).

    Signs of general intoxication (fever up to 40°C, general weakness,
    Break, headache, tachycardia) appear by the end of the first day
    or on the 2nd day of the disease. Fever keeps within 5-7 days,
    The body temperature is reduced critically, that is, sharply. Local changes
    In the field of the hearth gradually heal (with appropriate treatment)
    And by the end of 2-3 weeks, the Strip is discouted, an ulcer is formed, which later
    replaced by scar cloth.

    Lung form
    Siberian ulcers begins acutely, it takes hard and even
    Modern methods of treatment may end to death. Creamer occurs
    Pressed chills, body temperature quickly reaches high numbers
    (40°C and higher), marked conjunctivitis (tear, light,
    Redness conjunctiva), sneezing, runny nose, hoarse voice, cough. Thus
    how this dangerous form of the disease can be confused with flu or

    The state of patients from the first hours of illness becomes
    Heavy, severe stirring pains in the chest appear, shortness of breath, cyanosis,
    Tachycardia (up to 120-140 UD / min), blood pressure decreases.
    There is a blood admixture in sputum. Death comes in 2-3 days.

    Intestinal form
    Siberian ulcers are characterized by general intoxication, increasing
    Temperatures of the body, cutting pain in the abdomen, diarrhea and vomiting. In ropot
    Massas and in feces often observed a significant blood adherence.
    The belly will be taken, sharply painful when palpation, signs are detected
    Perish irritation. The patient's condition is progressively deteriorating and
    infectious-toxic shock phenomena patients die.

    Any of the described forms can develop a symbolic sepsis
    (blood infection) with the emergence of secondary foci (meningitis,
    Loading liver, kidneys, spleen and others).

    Before administration
    In the practice of antibiotics, the death rate under skin form reached 20%,
    Modern early treatment with antibiotics, it does not exceed 1%.
    But at the pulmonary, intestinal and septic forms, the forecast is still
    remains unfavorable, mortality reaches 100%, which is like
    Already mentioned one of the reasons to consider Siberian
    ulcer like biological weapons.

    Diagnosis of Siberian ulcers

    The diagnosis of Siberian ulcers can a infectious physician. Disease recognition
    Based on the data of epidemiological history - Profession
    the patient, the nature of the material being processed, from where the raw materials,
    Contact with patients with animals and others. Characteristic is also taken into account
    skin changes in the field of infection, described above.

    Confirmation of the diagnosis is the allocation of a culture of a symbiotic
    Sticks and its microbiological identification, detection
    The corresponding antibodies in the blood and skin-allergic test
    With anxissine.

    Treatment of Siberian ulcers

    Treatment is carried out only
    in the conditions of infectious compartment. Antibiotics are used as well
    Specific immunoglobulin. It should be noted that the causative agent
    Siberian ulcers are still sensitive to the most ordinary penicillin.

    Active detoxification is important (intravenous infusion with the addition of prednisolone).

    hospitalized in a separate chamber, in which they spend daily
    Disinfection. Discharge after complete recovery and healing of ulcers.

    Moving Siberian ulcers develop persistent immunity, although described
    Cases of re-infection 10-20 years after the first infection.

    Prevention of Siberian ulcers

    and the elimination of foci of infection is carried out through the veterinary service line.
    Persons exposed to the danger of infection by Siberian ulcers (employees
    Leather raw materials and wool processing enterprises, meat processing plants,
    veterinary workers, laboratory workers working
    With the causative agent of Siberian ulcers), conduct preventive vaccinations
    Siberian Live Dry Vaccine

    Behind people in contact with patients with animals, medical observation is established for 2 weeks.

    To exclude infection, it is necessary to be very careful when purchasing meat from individuals in the improvised markets.

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