Siberian ulcer - acute
Infectious disease that occurs mainly in the form of a skin,
Significantly less - in the pulmonary and intestinal forms with sepsis phenomena.
Comes from characteristic ulcerations arising on the skin of the disease.
Name in Western Literature - Anthrax (Carhuff) - occurs
from the Latin infection name and characterizes the black flare,
Covering these ulcerations.
Siberian ulcer is widespread
In many countries of Asia, Africa and South America. There is her foci
And in Russia - in cattle bisps in the Stavropol Territory,
Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Samara, Kirov, Rostov,
Kurgan and Oryol regions, Republics of North Ossetia, Chuvashia,
Buryatia, Chechnya, Tatarstan and T.D.
This infection belongs
to zoonoses - that is, a person is ill or from the most infected
Animal, or from its skins and wool. At the beginning of the century incidence
Siberian ulcer in Russia was massive. During
From 1901 to 1910, this severe infection has hit each year more
16 thousand people.
Currently, with development
Sanitary and epidemiological service, with the advent of antibiotics
The incidence is only sporadic, manifesting only
sometimes and separate flashes. In Russia, annually registers
from 15 to 50 cases of Siberian ulcers. It should be noted that practically
they are all worried, that is, people suffer,
working with animals.
Ways of infection of the Siberian ulcer
Diseases - Bacillus Anthracis - Siberian Bacillus, one
from the giants in the world of microbes, length 6-10 and 1-2 micron width. Itself
Bacillus is very unstable in the external environment - quickly dies when
Heating and using conventional disinfectants.
She is able to form a dispute with a powerful capsule - and then
The deception of the pathogen increases by an order. The dispute may be for hours
be in disinfecting solutions and withstands up to 20 minutes
Boiling. In this form of bacillus can persist in the ground
dozen years old.
It is these features of the causative agent of Siberian
Ulcers, as well as practically one hundred percent pulmonary mortality
Diseases allowed to consider the Siberian Bacillus as
Biological weapons. Genetically modified bacillus, with
Sustainability genes against the main groups of antibiotics becomes
formidable weapons and very attracts not only military, but also terrorists.
Known attempts to infection by the Siberian ulcer of American
government agencies, however, they failed because of ignorance
terrorists of the features of similar bacilli
But experts continue to admit that
Bacillus of Siberian ulcers can serve as a biological weapon as
lonely terrorist and group, moreover — more likely than
Many other bacteria.
Symptoms of Siberian ulcers
Penetrates the causative agent into the body through the skin (95%), which leads to development Skin shape Siberian ulcers. When inhalation, the dispute may develop Lung form, By swallowing - intestinal disease.
The average duration of the incubation period is 2-3 days, oscillations can be from several hours to 8-14 days.
At Skin form
The skin of the open parts of the body is amazed, especially with the preceding
Microtrams. Only fingertips, nail beds are not affected
And nose skin. The characteristic manifestation of the skin is local
Changes in the field of infection - the formation of a symbolic
After 2-3 days from the date of implementation
The causative agent in the skin on its surface is formed small, but strongly
itching red spot, which soon turns into a dense
Nodules - Papul. The process proceeds quickly, and after a few hours
At the top of Papula arises Pustula - a bubble, which gradually
Filled in purulent content. Then pustula bursts and in her place
dead cloths remain in the form of a black strip, according to resembling
Coal (which gave the disease Latin name - Anthrax, that is, coal).
Signs of general intoxication (fever up to 40°C, general weakness,
Break, headache, tachycardia) appear by the end of the first day
or on the 2nd day of the disease. Fever keeps within 5-7 days,
The body temperature is reduced critically, that is, sharply. Local changes
In the field of the hearth gradually heal (with appropriate treatment)
And by the end of 2-3 weeks, the Strip is discouted, an ulcer is formed, which later
replaced by scar cloth.
Siberian ulcers begins acutely, it takes hard and even
Modern methods of treatment may end to death. Creamer occurs
Pressed chills, body temperature quickly reaches high numbers
(40°C and higher), marked conjunctivitis (tear, light,
Redness conjunctiva), sneezing, runny nose, hoarse voice, cough. Thus
how this dangerous form of the disease can be confused with flu or
The state of patients from the first hours of illness becomes
Heavy, severe stirring pains in the chest appear, shortness of breath, cyanosis,
Tachycardia (up to 120-140 UD / min), blood pressure decreases.
There is a blood admixture in sputum. Death comes in 2-3 days.
Siberian ulcers are characterized by general intoxication, increasing
Temperatures of the body, cutting pain in the abdomen, diarrhea and vomiting. In ropot
Massas and in feces often observed a significant blood adherence.
The belly will be taken, sharply painful when palpation, signs are detected
Perish irritation. The patient's condition is progressively deteriorating and
infectious-toxic shock phenomena patients die.
Any of the described forms can develop a symbolic sepsis
(blood infection) with the emergence of secondary foci (meningitis,
Loading liver, kidneys, spleen and others).
In the practice of antibiotics, the death rate under skin form reached 20%,
Modern early treatment with antibiotics, it does not exceed 1%.
But at the pulmonary, intestinal and septic forms, the forecast is still
remains unfavorable, mortality reaches 100%, which is like
Already mentioned one of the reasons to consider Siberian
ulcer like biological weapons.
Diagnosis of Siberian ulcers
The diagnosis of Siberian ulcers can a infectious physician. Disease recognition
Based on the data of epidemiological history - Profession
the patient, the nature of the material being processed, from where the raw materials,
Contact with patients with animals and others. Characteristic is also taken into account
skin changes in the field of infection, described above.
Confirmation of the diagnosis is the allocation of a culture of a symbiotic
Sticks and its microbiological identification, detection
The corresponding antibodies in the blood and skin-allergic test
Treatment of Siberian ulcers
Treatment is carried out only
in the conditions of infectious compartment. Antibiotics are used as well
Specific immunoglobulin. It should be noted that the causative agent
Siberian ulcers are still sensitive to the most ordinary penicillin.
Active detoxification is important (intravenous infusion with the addition of prednisolone).
hospitalized in a separate chamber, in which they spend daily
Disinfection. Discharge after complete recovery and healing of ulcers.
Moving Siberian ulcers develop persistent immunity, although described
Cases of re-infection 10-20 years after the first infection.
Prevention of Siberian ulcers
and the elimination of foci of infection is carried out through the veterinary service line.
Persons exposed to the danger of infection by Siberian ulcers (employees
Leather raw materials and wool processing enterprises, meat processing plants,
veterinary workers, laboratory workers working
With the causative agent of Siberian ulcers), conduct preventive vaccinations
Siberian Live Dry Vaccine
Behind people in contact with patients with animals, medical observation is established for 2 weeks.
To exclude infection, it is necessary to be very careful when purchasing meat from individuals in the improvised markets.