Acute infectious disease is known since the time of the hypocratic and its name sounded like «Death ulcer Gotka». The main source of infection is a person sick diphtheria or a bacteria carrier, the mechanism of transmission of the disease — Air-drip. Patient diphtheria, not only pharynx, but any other form of this disease, remains contagious some time after infection. The mechanism of transmission of infection contributes to the fact that the infected air, where the causative agent hit, when inhalation it is settled and carries out to the mucous healthy person.
The feature of the diphtheria stick is its vitality, it survives up to 7 days, it is well preserved, and its habitat can be water, milk, homemade utensils, dishes, toys, books, in one word, all that surrounds man. The causative agent dies when disinfection by various substances, it can be chlorine, phenol, lysol, hydrogen peroxide, formalin. Externally healthy, without manifestations of signs of the disease, a person can be a source of illness, he does not suspect, and most often with such bacteria carriers are children 4-6 years old, separating diphtheria sticks.
The disease usually begins with general malaise and redness of the mucous membrane, throat pain, increasing body temperature to values not the highest and noticeable swelling of submandibular lymph nodes. Basic sign diphtheria, the transmission mechanism is known, this is the formation of dense gray-white films and plaque on the almonds and the soft heaven.
The degree of intoxication of the body is determined by the area formed films that are not removed by the spatula and are very tightly fit in the tissue of the almonds and the surface of the mucous membrane. Sometimes the film flare fully covers the sky and the nasopharynx, there is a swelling of the ZEV, which signals the beginning of the toxic form of the disease, which is characterized by a very sharpweight, high, up to 39-40s body temperature, pain when swallowing, and even closure of almonds, lethargy, weakness, sometimes vomiting, very pale leather and weak pulse. There is a swelling of lymphatic assemblies in the neck and even chest, breathing becomes compressed and wheezing, stunned from the nose. Treatment of hazardous disease is carried out only in hospital conditions and in strict isolation.
Diffeter prevention is conducted in 2 directions. One of them is the timely hospitalization of the diseased and mandatory disinfection of all items in his apartment, sometimes even with the complete destruction of things surrounding the patient. It may be books or some types of toys that easier to destroy than to disinfect. Children who were in the apartment with sick diphtheria, as a measure of prevention should not attend kindergartens or schools. For diphtheria, prevention measures, of course, are vaccinations that make almost all children aged from 5-6 months and up to 12 years.
However, sometimes there are problems with parents who, for one reason or another, not fully realizing the danger of the disease, the vaccinations categorically refuse to be, including the cause of the diphtheria epidemic in Moscow at the end of the previous century. Immunization is based on vaccination of adults and children, as well as mandatory subsequent revaccination of adults, since vaccinations from diphtheria do not provide lifelong immunity and require mandatory repeat after 10 years.
This condition was neglected in the 1980-90 years of the 20th century, when diphtheria in Moscow reached the scale of the epidemic. Differentiation of the disease is carried out with an angina and requires increased attention from a doctor and parental understanding of self-medication, especially in this case, when you can miss the disease or abandon the vaccination, or to render the introduction of anti-informy serum, which can prevent heavy complications of life-threatening. Clear, though late, carrying out the necessary events, improving the clinical diagnosis and bacteriological examination of patients ensured a significant reduction in incidence in the country.