Down syndrome — One of the most common genetic disorders. The frequency of the birth of such children is approximately one by 600-800 newborns.
In our country, the term is most often used «Dauna disease». And often it is said that it «incurable disease». Some experts argue that there are even two diagnoses: Down disease and Down syndrome. They assure that the child's condition depends on whether he has a disease or syndrome. Such statements are extremely incorrect and even absurd.
Down syndrome is not a disease. Word «syndrome» means a certain set of features, or features. For the first time signs of people with this deflection described English doctor John Langdon Down (DOWN) in 1866. His name and served as the title for this syndrome. However, only in 1959, the French scientist Zherom Lejen (LEJEUNE) discovered the cause of the disease — This is an extra chromosome.
Each cell of the human body usually contains 46 chromosomes that carry signs that inherit a person from parents, and are located in pairs - half of the mother, half of the father. In people with Down syndrome in the 21st pair there is an additional chromosome, that is, there is a so-called trisomy, therefore in the cells of the body turns out to be 47 chromosomes. Diagnosis «Down syndrome» can only be delivered by a genetic doctor using blood test.
An additional chromosome appears as a result of an accident when forming an egg or sperm, or during the first division of the cell, which follows the fertilization (that is, when the egg and spermatozoide merge). Until now, it has not been an unequivocal opinion about what is the reason for such a genetic anomaly. Children with Down syndrome are born with the same frequency in all countries of the world, regardless of the level of welfare or ecology — In families of academics and builders, presidents and unemployed. The emergence of a child with Down syndrome does not depend on the lifestyle, nationality, level of education or social status of parents. Niche «guilt» There is no such baby in the appearance of such a kid.
The presence of this additional chromosome determines the emergence of a number of physiological features, as a result of which the child will be slower than its peers, develop and undergo common stages of development for all children.
It used to be believed that all people with this diagnosis have a serious degree of mental backwardness and are not leaving. Modern studies show that almost all people with Down syndrome are lagging behind in development, but inside this group their intellectual level differs greatly - from a minor backlog to medium and severe. Still, most of the sick children can learn how to go, speak, read, write and, in general, to make most of what other guys can do, you only need to provide them with an adequate environment of life and relevant training programs. In our country, the ideas about people with Down syndrome are worn, rather, the mythical than a real character, and the attitude towards them is often the opposite.
Some assure that people with Down syndrome are always aggressive, often on sexual soil. At the same time, their aggression can be directed even on close family members, as they are so stupid that they are not able to distinguish, for example, their parents from other people, they are impossible to teach something and their behavior, even in adulthood, will always be inadequate.
Another opinion is completely the opposite: these people are always very kind, merry, sociable, love to sing and dance and can even become dancers and musicians, despite the fact that they have an extremely low intelligence.
The truth is little both in the first and second approval. People with Down syndrome, despite the external similarity, differ from each other as well as people without this diagnosis. They have different mental abilities, behavior and physical development. Each person has a unique person, personality and even talents. They are largely similar to their parents, and, like any other, have their own character and temperament.
People with Down syndrome can much better develop their abilities if they live at home, in an atmosphere of love, if they are engaged in childhood on early care programs, if they receive special education, proper medical care and feel a positive attitude towards themselves.