Myocardial infarction - a complication of coronaryheart disease, it is a natural, though not necessarily the result. Pathology occurs when a complete blockage of the coronary arteries or branches. Signs of myocardial infarction is quite diverse, and recognize them sometimes is not so easy.
Signs of myocardial infarction in men and women: clinical forms
The variety of signs of myocardial infarction led to the fact that physicians conditionally divided them into several clinical forms:
- Anginal embodiment is a typicalform of the disease. It occurs in 75-90% of patients. The main manifestation - chest pain, which can not be removed taking nitroglycerin (tablets or spray). Often she gives in the left shoulder and arm, in the interscapular region, at least - in the neck and lower jaw. It is very important for the diagnosis of this symptom as "the fear of imminent death." The patient is disturbed, lies almost motionless noted weakness. At the request of the show, where it hurts, the patient indicates the place of pain clenched fist. It is also a sign of heart disease is called "symptom of a clenched fist."
- When asthmatic variant in the first placeoverlook signs of cardiac asthma: shortness of breath or dyspnea, palpitations, forced position (orthopnea). The latter is the choice of the patient sitting position, with his hands, focusing in the bed. Pain occurs infrequently, and its intensity is low. Sometimes only after careful questioning the patient can remember the pain.
- Gastralgichesky option (or abdominal form)strongly resembles acute pathology in the abdomen. The pain is localized at the top of the stomach. The clinical picture of the disease resembles acute pancreatitis or stomach ulcer defeat. Strengthen confusion burping, hiccups, nausea and vomiting, sometimes repeated. All this is so reminiscent of acute pancreatitis, often in the early hours of the patient's illness was beginning to treat the disease. Only with the help of the ECG can identify the true cause of abdominal pain.
- Arrhythmic variant is characterized by the development ofcardiac arrhythmias. The patient complains of irregular heartbeat, "cardiac arrest" for a moment. Pains or not, or they are so weak that they do not attract the attention of the patient. Due to the deterioration of brain power possible sharp drop in blood pressure. There may be fainting. In some patients there is shortness of breath.
- Cerebrovascular (or brain) optionIt shows signs of deterioration of blood supply of the brain. The complaints of the heart may be missing completely. The most common symptoms are dizziness, confusion, disorientation, distorted speech, fainting, vomiting. There are focal symptoms: paralysis, paresis, sensory disturbances in some areas of the body. Sometimes cerebrovascular symptoms expressed so much that can completely mask the symptoms of a heart attack.
- Malosimptomno form in women and menIt occurs equally often. Usually it is a random finding during routine inspections. Discover it by studying data of electrocardiography, while on the film already shows signs of myocardial. Careful questioning of the patient often reveals the time of ischemic attacks in the past. Symptoms, however, is not much different from the usual angina attack, so the patient to the doctor does not appeal, transferring the disease on their feet.
First aid for heart attack
Treatment of myocardial infarction is a very complexchallenge even for good professionals. To help them, you can, if you know how to correctly identify the first signs of a heart attack and in time to render first aid to the patient:
- The most important thing - to stay calm, not to panic.
- The patient should be put, raising the upper half of the body at 40 degrees.
- It is necessary to ensure a flow of air - to undo the top buttons of his shirt. Remove the tie, to make the patient on the air or open a window.
- Give the patient a tablet of nitroglycerin under the tongue or use the drug as a spray. Repeat the procedure three times.
- Give the patient a drink poltabletki aspirin.
- Call the "first aid", to explain what happened and when, to name the exact address.
- With the sudden deterioration in the patient's condition,loss of consciousness immediately check the pulse of the carotid artery, to assess whether the person is breathing. If there is no pulse and breathing start external cardiac massage and artificial respiration.
Symptoms of a heart attack - is often a painthe middle of the chest, weakness, shortness of breath. If you experience any of these symptoms do not get lost and do not waste time. Call the "fast" and start taking measures to save the patient. So you will increase his chances of survival and a return to normal life in the future.