The first features of the disease in our brotherssmaller described S. Bernard in 1852, and the course of the disease specificity F. Horner studied in humans in 1869. In this regard, some medical sources speak of illness, calling him not only as Horner's syndrome.
Causes of the syndrome
Doctors have called a number of factors with confidenceIt is a prerequisite for the emergence of irregularities in the strict system of nerve cells and the impulses which they circulate throughout the body. The reasons for this are quite a few - MipSovetov offers to get acquainted with the main ones:
- Squeezing or damage to the thoracic and / or cervical sympathetic chain. Symptoms occur most often on the same side where failure occurred.
- The destruction of the structures of the brain at the cellular level, the cause of which was the loss of the nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve.
- Cluster headache. The disorder is more pronounced headaches, which irradiate the walls of the cranium. Sometimes, people committed suicide, only to rid themselves of suffering.
- Injury due to the strong base of the neck injury.
- Injury as a result of surgery.
- Various tumors (especially tumor Pancoast).
- Aortic aneurysm. A large percentage of cases, Horner's syndrome occurs against the background of this pathology.
- Inflammation in the middle ear department.
- The tumor, which was the place of localization of the thyroid gland.
- Dissecting aneurysm.
- Autoimmune disorders (multiple sclerosis, for example).
- Voltage covering star nerve due to the presence of additional cervical rib.
- The blockade of the nerve centers.
- Hereditary diseases that provokes the development of tumors throughout the body - Neurofibromatosis type first.
- Serous meningitis.
Classification of diseases
Visual inspection of the patient with suspectedHorner's Syndrome opens the list of diagnostic methods by which the disease is identified. To compile a detailed medical history, doctors adhere to the following scheme of action:
- Instill solution in the eyes of the groupM-anticholinergics. With the drug, the ability to expand and contract the pupil. The solution stimulates the pupil to expand. If the expected response does not appear, the eye is likely impressed Horner syndrome or some other pathology. In any case, a diagnostic study does not end there.
- Timing delays reaction eyes. As already noted, the syndrome of Horner's pupil is deprived of the ability to react promptly to changing lighting. Knowing about the time frame of natural adaptation, doctors can compare them with the speed of reaction of the patient's eyes.
- Conducting MRI. Using MRI diagnostician determines whether education exist (eg, tumors), which could trigger the development of Horner's syndrome.
Treatment of the disease
Despite a number of significant cosmeticdefects, Horner's syndrome can be considered relatively harmless disease. However, this statement is true only in the case when the disease is idiopathic, that is, one that came by itself. In other cases of foreign clinical syndrome may be hiding quite certain and quite serious severe disorders.
In order to improve the patient's condition, modern medicine uses the following methods:
- Neurostimulation. To certain muscles or entire areas of the face, in which the effects of localized disease, and attach the electrodes by means of short electrical pulses to stimulate the affected tissues. This procedure improves blood circulation, there is a complete or partial restoration of functions of the eye and face.
- Plastic surgery. The surgical scalpel whereby corrected external defects, sometimes the only solution (provided that the quality of view is not reduced).
- Medical treatment. Vital functions of the person damaged tissue to stimulate special preparations. Selection of drugs is carried out in a strictly individual basis.
- Kinesitherapy - therapeutic exercise. The method is based on the impact on the sensitivity and functionality of the affected areas by direct tactile contact - massage.
- Treatment of the underlying disease for which the soil originated disease of the sympathetic nervous system.
Horner's syndrome is remarkable is the fact that notIt has specific measures of treatment and prevention, because it can be generated by other diseases - many systemic disorders, which themselves require the attention of specialists. It turns out that the need for the diagnosis of this syndrome is the detection and confirmation of a more serious disease that can threaten the patient's life. At the same time, Horner's syndrome can not be called the usual pathology: as inherent to the specific symptoms, which requires certain diagnostic and treatment measures.
Patients important to note that foreseenand prevent the development of disease is impossible. What can the man for the sake of their own health? The answer is simple: when a suspicious and disturbing metamorphoses, which are reflected in the appearance, you should immediately seek help from professionals. Remember that in most cases, Horner's syndrome plays the role of a screen that hides the more serious diseases.