The life of each of us is priceless. There are situations where the delay is death, and medical assistance for special circumstances delayed. This task then falls on the shoulders of bystanders, fellow travelers, colleagues and relatives. To act more or less consciously, you need a little bit to understand the symptoms of the tragedy, to understand what the body alarms.
Fierce fighting, mountain collapse, automotiveaccident. All this may be accompanied by a fractured rib. Intelligent workflow in these conditions will save the patient. our site will tell you today about first aid and surgical operations for injuries of the chest, complicated by pneumothorax.
What is pneumothorax
Pneumothorax - is finding air in the chestcell. "Well, what kind of complication? Where is the air be? Because we all know that the lungs breathe air "- thought by many. This is indisputable, but to understand the mechanism of such severe complications, a little anatomy, very, very little.
When you inhale into the lungs, namely, in the lungalveoli indeed misses oxygen. When pneumothorax air enters the pleural cavity formed by two sheets of pleura. Each lung and heart and has a protective cover. Thus, such cases in the chest three. The inner leaf of the pleura is intimately connected with the light, so much so closely that separate it from the light, without damaging the lung tissue, it is impossible.
The outer leaf carpets the bone structuresinside the thoracic cage. At the top and bottom sheets are fused with each other, ensuring the tightness of the pleural cavity. In the cavity of one or two milliliters secretions to facilitate sliding of sheets relative to each other, and the negative pressure. The negative pressure allows light to freely expand after the apart of the ribs during inspiration.
Types of pneumothorax
The severity of pneumothorax caused by his appearance.
In closed pneumothorax, ie when there is nothe pleural cavity due to the environment, in other words there is no wound, and the accumulation of a small amount of fluid, blood in the pleura caused by any blunt trauma or rupture of a pathologically enlarged alveoli, life is not threatened. The exudate is likely, over time, will resolve and easy violence. Phthisiologists even use artificial pneumothorax in treating cavernous (with the presence of cavities) tuberculosis lungs. Bringing together the edges of the cavity, promote healing her.
With an open pneumothorax communication with the external environmentavailable. In late assistance provided easy can completely save. On the X-ray is easy looks like a tortilla, tied to the root of the lung. The second slight able thus to take on the extra load. Puncture of the pleural cavity with the pumping of gas is able to fully revive the lung.
The most menacing look pneumothorax - a valve, it isas stressful. All new and new portions of air with every breath unilaterally rush into the pleural cavity. The gas outlet into the environment prevents the valve. Characteristically, the patient's condition worsens with each breath. Due to the huge amount of air in the cavity moves the heart and the second light, twisted blood vessels. There is a respiratory and cardiovascular failure. Irritation of the nerve endings of the pleura leads to the development of pain shock. Feeling short of breath, increasing shortness of breath, sharp chest pain, blueness of the skin - these are the main symptoms of pneumothorax.
First we need to contact the emergency medical service or emergency service, or with the rescuers. When a mobile phone is available it is available to all.
Here are the most urgent telephone numbers:
- 112 - a single phone number, call emergency services (with all mobile phones);
- 0911 - any cell phone call to emergency services;
- 01 - Fire and rescue workers.
Then it should be available assistance: to stop the bleeding and the flow of air into the pleural cavity of the imposition of tight sealed bandages. Naturally, it will not be sterile, as will be used the means at hand (shirt and T-shirt with itself), but directly to the wound should touch the purest of the existing one. Top dressing is good to supplement polyethylene film, oilcloth for more convincing sealing.
In order to facilitate respiration should create injured exalted position again with the help of available funds. This should be done carefully so as not to cause additional suffering.
When syncope bring to the nose sharply smelling tool. Ammonia is not always at hand. Replace it can perfume, nail polish remover, gasoline, finally. When the pain - give analgin, aspirinIf available. And wait for the arrival of an ambulance doctor.
What can help him in the hospital? X-ray examination will give an objective picture of defeat. Normally, on the radiograph clearly visible ribs and lungs with a characteristic pulmonary pattern. It is also possible to judge the degree of displacement of the heart and the second lung. When pneumothorax visible thickening of the pulmonary picture without loosing contact with the lung, and the presence of gas shows absolute transparency side of the chest (pulmonary absent figure).
Repeated X-ray studies will be judged on the effectiveness of medical procedures.
What surgeons undertake:
- Open pneumothorax is converted into an indoor, ushiv wound.
- Then, gas is suctioned off, restoring negative pressure.
- Carry out activities to combat shock cottage painkillers.
- Struggling with a sharp decline in blood pressure due to blood loss, blood transfusion, and emerged shock - drugs which stimulate vascular and respiratory center.
- The valve pneumothorax is transferred to a closed valve by excision.
- Then carried out the evacuation of the gas special apparatus.
Here are the highlights of these patients return to normal life.