Tuberculosis is widespread in Russia. The most common form of lung disease develops in people with weakened immune systems -their body can not fight infection. You can also become infected by contact with a sick person: Mycobacterium tuberculosis into the air from coughing, sneezing patient. Particularly acute tuberculosis in spring and autumn, during these periods the infection is most likely.
Symptoms of TB include: persistently elevated temperature (not above 38C) headache, Weight loss, lack of appetite, coughing (asdry and sputum, blood sputum), shortness of breath, night sweats. There are mood swings, irritability, decreased performance. Wink can only 1-2 symptoms, not necessarily it will be a cough. Therefore, the appearance of one of these symptoms does not recommend our site to be treated yourself, and see a doctor in time to diagnose a possible TB and start early treatment.
The simplest test for TB - Mantoux test. After 72 hours, after Mantoux test can determine if the body TB infection. However, this method has a very low precision.
Smears under the microscope, too, can not be a model: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is easily confused with other species of bacteria and make the wrong diagnosis.
Sputum culture often helps to diagnose TB, but TB bacteria "grow" is not always so, and here there is a risk of false negative test.
Most often, for lack of anything better, for screening for tuberculosis using a conventional chest X-ray and examination of the patient.
In a specialized clinic can dodetermining antibody titer to tuberculosis. This method allows you to detect the presence of immunity to tuberculosis and to find out whether there was effective vaccination. Reliability - about 75%.
The most modern method - PCR (polymerase chain reaction). This DNA diagnostics, the analysis is taken when the patient's sputum. The result can be found after 3 days, the accuracy - 95-100%.
Treatment of tuberculosis
Treat TB alone is impossible - atuncontrolled medication at the Koch bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) develop drug resistance and cure tuberculosis becomes much more difficult.
Treatment of normal (the drug-sensitive)TB takes at least 6 months, and sometimes delayed up to 2 years. For the oppression of infection treatment should be carried out systematically, without a pause, then TB will not be able to progress.
When tuberculosis is identified, the patient is placed in ahospital, where he spends about two months - during which time the active selection stops TB bacteria. When the patient ceases to be a threat to the health of others, continued outpatient treatment.
Treatment is carried out by the usual TBa specific pattern, it includes drugs such as isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, streptomycin and ethambutol. The doctor selects a specific combination of drugs that the patient should be taken for 2-3 months, the treatment takes place in a hospital. If after this time the treatment has not brought the desired effect or the effect is very weak, due to infection resistant to a particular drug, the chemotherapy made the appropriate changes. In such cases, replaced with one or more drugs or changing the route of administration (intravenous, inhalation). If, on the contrary, after 2-3 months of taking the drugs there is a positive effect over the next 4 months prescribed only isoniazid and rifampicin. On completion of the course of treatment the patient again passes tests and, if the tubercle bacillus is detected, then moved to the tuberculosis drug-resistant forms.
Treatment of drug-resistant forms of tuberculosisdelayed for years. Depending on which drugs resistant tuberculosis bacteria, the main drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin) is added the so-called second-line drugs - ofloxacin, kapriomitsin, ethionamide, cycloserine, PAS. Second-line drugs are much more expensive than ordinary TB medicines and treatment they can cost about $ 10 000. Taking these drugs can only be in the complex, otherwise there will be the effect. our site deliberately does not publish the schema taking these drugs, since uncontrolled treatment forms a complete bacterial resistance and absolute incurability tuberculosis.
Surgery for the treatment of tuberculosis is rarely used, because the effectiveness of this method is very low.
Previously, an integral part of the treatment of tuberculosiswas the spa treatment. Nowadays, treatment in sanatoriums is only an additional means of controlling the disease. But if the patient refuses hospitalization, when necessary, a medical institution has the right to a court to direct the patient to compulsory treatment in the TB clinic. This practice is used widely for the treatment of patients with irresponsible and ensure the nation's health.
Of great importance in treating the disease hasproper nutrition. The patient's diet should include meat, fish, vegetables and fruits. Alcohol and smoking are strictly contraindicated. Since the patient often loses appetite for tuberculosis is recommended to eat foods rich in vitamins, which tend to excite the appetite: the infusion of rose hips, fish oil, yogurt, kefir.
If a person has a strong immunity, theafter infection he was not sick at once, and remains practically healthy, although infection remains in the body. It can last a lifetime and never develop into TB.
The impetus for the development of tuberculosis may servesevere stress, nutritional deficiencies, prolonged binges. Most people are not even aware that their bodies are in the tubercle bacillus. So try to always maintain your health is normal, that in itself will oppose the development of the disease. our site can reassure you: the common cold causes a decrease in immunity, but this is not enough for the beginning of tuberculosis. To start tubercle bacillus to multiply, weakening the immune system needs to be extended and combined with poor living conditions - poor quality food, lack of fresh air, hard work in the contaminated areas.
Prevention of tuberculosis
Tuberculosis - a disease of poverty and poor sanitation. To protect yourself from this disease, you need to take care of your immunity - a strong immune system in a state of self-defeat tubercle bacillus, if that is ingested. To the immune system could cope with the disease, you need high-quality and diverse eat, take vitamins, a lot of walking and do some sports. The leading role in the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis in prison play. Treatment of prisoners are often held wrong or patients themselves properly take medications as a result of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant spreads exponentially.
Once in the air, tubercle bacillus viability for 10 days - for example, in street dust. But in the absence of sunlight bacteria live much longer - several months.
You can become infected just by inhalation of air inwhich are microscopically small droplets of saliva and sputum of the patient. There will be infected or not - depends on how much of the bacteria get into the lungs, the body will be able to suppress them or not. If a long time to be in the same room with a patient infected with the danger increases at times - which is why so "blooms" of tuberculosis in prisons. The worse ventilated room, the longer the bacteria remain in the air.
You can not become infected by shaking hands with a patienton the street. But in a room where the air is almost motionless, tactile contact and the use of common household items significantly increase the risk of infection.
A person can get TB by eatingfood milk from cows infected with tuberculosis. Our website recommends: do not buy milk "from housewives" who trade in places not intended for trading - their product does not pass sanitary-epidemiological control and there is no guarantee you the safety of their products.
If there is someone who is sick among your friendsTuberculosis, be tolerant to it. The man certainly suffers from the fact that all surrounding shy away, as soon as he kashlyanet. Of course, all of us terribly ill with tuberculosis, but we must remember that the normal conscious people will never appear in public, knowing that is dangerous to others. Therefore, patients who work or study with other people, most likely, can not infect anyone. Very often, people even after successful treatment of the disease for many years suffered from unduly squeamish attitude of others. Of course, the natural repugnance and fear of infection will not hide, but if you fell to communicate with a man who suffered from tuberculosis, our site advises still try to find the strength, not hurt to not show his attitude to his already former disease it their attitude.