Symptoms of hypoglycemia sometimes start veryslowly, sometimes, on the contrary, develop suddenly, but always of a pathological condition in which the glucose concentration is below the threshold value of 3.5 mmol / l.
Clinical manifestations of hypoglycemicsyndrome marked dehydration, agitation, fear and anxiety, the patient experiences excessive sweating and rapid heartbeat, muscle tremors and experiencing hunger, pale skin and usually accompanied by dizziness and even fainting.
Hypoglycemia is characterized by significantdrop in blood sugar levels, which causes the disorder of functioning of many organs. Particularly sensitive to the reduction of glucose is the human brain, it sends a signal through the adrenal glands nervous system, which in response to begin to produce adrenaline. As a result, such a mechanism of liver glycogen carbohydrate actively processed into glucose, thus these processes lead to a slight increase of sugar and improve the patient's condition.
Adrenaline, promoting the release of sugar,It causes symptoms of anxiety such as nervousness, tremors, sweating, heart palpitations and dizziness. In the case of severe hypoglycemia observed reduction of glucose to the brain, it leads to weakness, headache, and even behavioral changes. Sometimes a pathological reaction can be mistaken for alcohol intoxication: visual disturbances occur, inappropriate behavior, convulsions and coma, prolonged hypoglycemia causes serious and irreversible damage to the brain cells. Most often, such a state is seen in people using insulin or sugar-containing medicines to treat diabetes. It should be noted that patients with diabetes are highly prone to hypoglycemia. A large overdose can result in:
- focal neurological disorders;
- epileptiform seizures;
- loss of consciousness due to coma;
- death at a dose of insulin more than 100 units.
Causes of hypoglycemia can beexcess production of insulin cells in the pancreas, disturbance of the functioning of the pituitary or adrenal glands, changes in carbohydrate metabolism. Such a condition may be related to medicines, for example, salicylate and some antibiotics, in case after prolonged fasting, as a reaction to food intake.
The occurrence of hypoglycemia often accompaniesheavy alcohol intoxication, violation of norms and diets, sometimes in the presence of pituitary disease, hypothalamic, or adrenal glands. Alimentary hypoglycemia occurs after surgery on the stomach in between meals, sometimes the cause may be an autoimmune disease, renal or cardiac decompensation, a malignant tumor.
Diagnosis of hypoglycemia is amedical history, laboratory examination of hypoglycemia level, blood tests for sugar, so low levels of blood glucose in conjunction with clinical signs confirm the diagnosis specialists endocrinologists and therapists.
Treatment of hypoglycemia involves immediately40% intravenous glucose, or glucagon, eating sugar or something sweet, the patient is recommended to carry a "sweet first-aid kit," which includes candy, a few pieces of sugar, glucose tablets, it is desirable to have a sweet drink or packaging of juice, pastry and sandwich. Within a few minutes, the patient becomes easier, in severe cases, combined with the use of sugar meal. Recommended the introduction of a protein hormone glucagon, which stimulates the formation of glucose from carbohydrates, namely of glycogen in the liver, its single injection restores blood sugar 10-15 minutes. Mandatory self-control before bedtime glucose level should not be less than 5.5-5.7 mmol / l, on long journeys and trips patients must have a vial of glucagon and a syringe. Keep in mind that fast "saharopovyshayuschy" effect has net glucose, sucrose, fructose, but not.