The first found that some people are deniedpossible to distinguish between certain colors, an English chemist and physicist John Dalton. In 1794, he described himself inherent defect of vision: the inability to distinguish between red and green colors. On behalf of the discoverer of the flaw and is called color blindness. A special sensation discovery did not cause. It was seen more as a curiosity that leads to the small inconveniences, like the inability to collect red strawberries in a green grass. However, over time it became surprising detail: congenital color blindness - with rare exceptions - only peculiar to men. In addition to "imperceptible" occasionally refers and blue (purple) color.
One hundred years to the problem of color blindness, a newinterest - due to the rapid development of transport. On the roads there were traffic lights and color-blind driving have become a source of danger. Soon adopted measures: before receiving permission to drive, you need to go through screening tests. Anyone who could distinguish among single-color background circles figures or shapes made up of circles of the same brightness, but different color, received the right to drive. If the subject's color vision is not in order, then it can do that and do not, respectively, can be the driver.
But not only the transportation problems have drawn attention to the color blind. Interested, he and scientists: first physiologists, and then specialists in heredity.
And now about why such attackIt falls mainly on men. The answer to this question could Genetics. It turned out that the "responsibility" for the occurrence of color blindness in men is on the ... women. They are hidden carriers of the defective gene that causes disturbances of color vision. Why in the male body, this gene behaves, and in women - no? The fact that a pair of chromosomes, responsible for sex of the person exists in two versions. In women, its components are identical, and in males - no. "X" Female sex chromosomes usually denoted by Latin letter. Women have two X - chromosomes (XX), and a man other than X-chromosome, there is still a small chromosome, which represent the Latin letter "y." That is, the "gentleman" set - it is XY. Color blindness gene is in the X-chromosome, and the "power" of his small. If a person works normal, unmodified gene, then express it yourself can not. It is understood that in women with two X-chromosomes occurrence of congenital color blindness is only possible when both chromosomes prove defective genes. Such a situation is extremely rare. But in the Y-chromosome gene is not capable of "drown" his partner failed, so color blindness gene manifests itself in men often enough.
Surprisingly, many people with impairedcolor vision learn about the features of his accident. It turns out that they are gradually "trained" to distinguish colors according to their brightness, which partly compensates for the lack of them. And they do it so well that "expose" this detour of perception can only specialist.
In addition to innate characteristics, color perceptionIt may be impaired due to eye diseases and central nervous system. This reduces the perception of all three primary colors. Early treatment is usually restores normal color.
Prolonged exposure to the color on the eye colorRetinal sensitivity can be reduced to such a state that the two different colors will be perceived as identical. This phenomenon of color fatigue.
Color fairly strong effect on the psyche and the physiological state of a person. The most beneficial effect on vision has yellow-green-blue range of colors.
Women tend to be more subtle than men, distinguish colors and be able to see more of them.