Gonorrhea - an infectious disease caused bygonococcus (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), which refers to sexually transmitted diseases. Gonorrhea is transmitted primarily through sexual contact. The main sources of infection are men and women with an erased or chronic form of infection. Infection from a person with a gonorrhea can occur with direct contact of the external genitalia, even if the penis is not inserted into the woman’s vagina. Contact-household transmission method (through household items, toilet seats, towels, etc.) has not been proven. Children can become infected during childbirth, when passing through the birth canal of a mother who has gonorrhea.
Immunity gonococci is not formed. Therefore, the possibility of reinfection throughout life. Women infected with gonorrhea is easier, because of the peculiarities of the structure of their genitals, often suffer from blurred forms of infection and more likely to infect men. It is not necessary, perhaps, to say that the most widespread disease among sexually active and having promiscuity.
The manifestations of gonococcal infection
The incubation (latent) period of the disease lasts from 12 hours to 7 days, an average of 72 hours. At this time, the patient is already contagious and can transmit the disease to sexual partners.
Gonokokki hit particularly delicate mucousmembrane of the genitals, causing inflammation. Women are affected mucous membranes of the urethra (urethritis), the lower portion of the rectum, ducts bartolinievyh glands (glands of vestibule), the cervical canal (cervical), uterus (endometrium) and lumen of the fallopian tubes. Thus, women more frequently observed development of gonococcal urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), proctitis (inflammation of the rectum), endocervicitis (inflammation of the cervical canal), endometritis (mucous oral inflammation of the uterus) and adnexitis (inflammation of the uterus - the ovaries and fallopian tubes) . Other forms of lesions, i.e. coleitis vulvitis and arise mainly again if damage to the mucosal surface. In severe cases, may develop gonococcal peritonitis, the spread of infection through the bloodstream, and her eye disease, joints, heart and other organs.
A few days after the start of infectionappear the first signs of gonorrhea. Often the development of infection begins with urethritis phenomena. The woman begins to disturb the stinging and pain when urinating. The area around the external opening of the urethra swells, turns red, the channel can be released from a drop of pus. At the same time in the inflammatory process involves the cervical canal. Here, too, there are signs of gonococcal defeats. Woman celebrates the appearance of pus, moderate or heavy vaginal discharge. If the affected mucosa of the rectum, proctitis occurs, and this is accompanied by the appearance of complaints of pain in the anus and the false desires of bowel. Sometimes infectious process involved gland vestibule. Bartolini is developing in its various forms and manifestations.
However, not all gonorrhea more evident quite frequently in women the disease is nearly asymptomatic, resulting in the further spread of infection and serious complications.
In the absence of timely treatment,The inflammatory process goes beyond the external genitalia and extends to the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity. This disease is called ascending gonorrhea. The development of ascending gonorrhea is promoted by sexual intercourse, decreased immunity and intrauterine interventions. Inflammation of the uterine mucosa (endometritis) with gonorrhea manifests itself in the same way as the inflammatory process of a non-specific nature. Body temperature rises, general well-being worsens, pulling pains occur in the lower abdomen. A woman begins to worry about vaginal discharge of a purulent nature with an admixture of blood. Sometimes there are bleeding that is not associated with menstruation. Menses become prolonged, profuse and painful.
Distribution gonorrheal inflammation in the areaappendages causes the development of gonococcal adnexitis. Severe general condition, fever, intoxication, severe abdominal pain radiating to the lower back and hips - that's what worries delivers gonorrhea appendages. A characteristic feature of inflammation is caused by gonococcus defeat appendages on two sides, the rapid emergence of irreversible damage to the fallopian tubes, with the development of complete obstruction.
Acute manifestations of the disease continuenot for long. After two weeks, the number of complaints decreases, and after 2 months, acute gonorrhea becomes chronic. There are few manifestations of the disease during the lull period, and they are no longer so pronounced. Inflammation of the urethra can practically not bother a woman, endocervicitis (inflammation of the cervical canal) does not occur at all. Minor purulent discharge by a sick woman may go unnoticed.
In the long gonorrhea sharplyIt increases the likelihood of the spread of infection in the uterus and the fallopian tubes and the development of a large number of adhesions in the pelvis. Chronic inflammation of the uterine mucosa (endometritis) and uterine appendages (adnexitis) are accompanied by complaints of the patient on constant dull aching pain in the lower abdomen and lower back, worse after intercourse or a pelvic exam. Periodically bothered spotting from the genital tract, menstrual irregularities. Monthly become frequent, painful, heavy. Almost always there is infertility.
Chronic gonorrhea prone to exacerbations. Most often they are provoked by hypothermia, sexual acts, gynecological intrauterine manipulations, low immunity as a result of the transferred common infections. Exacerbations occur as an inflammatory process unfolded with many manifestations.
Diagnosis of gonococcal infection
At gynecological examination the doctor findsall signs of inflammation depending on their prevalence and colorful displays. In general, the picture is different from that in diseases caused by pyogenic unspecific flora. Crucial in the diagnosis of gonorrhea is the detection of gonorrhea at a laboratory study of smears and crops from the urethra, cervix and rectum. For the diagnosis of gonorrhea is now also used and PCR (polymerase chain reaction), which allows to identify the presence of heme gonokkokov in various biological fluids. Furthermore, the patient blood is examined for syphilis and HIV.
Given that gonorrhea refers to sexually transmitted diseases, further examination and treatment of the woman and her sexual partner, or partners, held in STI clinics.
Treatment of gonococcal infection
So, a woman gets in the direction of Skin and Venereal Diseases Dispensary. There is sent a notice of detected cases of gonorrhea.
The venereal dispensary womaninterrogated about her sexual contacts, if necessary, carried out investigative measures. Often, treatment is required in the venereal hospital. All this is necessary to prevent tract infection spread among the people and in the interest of women to hide nothing of the details of her intimate life.
In the treatment of gonorrhea appointed coursespecific antimicrobial therapy. A prerequisite to successful treatment is abstinence from sexual activity. After completing the course of treatment is carried out by control of cure gonorrhea after 2 and 14 days after treatment. In case of gonokkokov (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), the treatment is repeated. Remember that the time prescribed treatment for gonorrhea will help you recover and avoid complications.