Because anthrax stories
In 1941. on one of the islands off the northern coast of Scotland
(Riert) on a large scale experiments were carried out by the British Army infection
anthrax sheep in order to "work out" the defeat of the process
bacteriological weapons. After many years, according to the English
journalist Robert Harris, on the island "just a scratch
It could cost a person their life. " By assumption, scholars island will
infected with anthrax spores to 500 years.
The Russian Federation has sharply deteriorated in recent years
The situation on anthrax. Every year people are registered the disease
11-13 provinces. Infection occurs when caring for a sick animal,
slaughter, butchering, in contact with the corpse of the deceased from anthrax
animal infected with the causative agent of the soil, livestock products,
livestock raw materials and manufactured items from it. exciter
It penetrates the human body through the skin or external mucous microtrauma
membranes. There have been cases of infection by food (when used
infected meat products), vector-borne (through the bites of flies) and
by inhalation of dust associated with dry animal feed processing
(Skin, hair, hair, bones, etc.). The main route of infection of animals
- Food (through food and water).
Infected people with anthrax are usually associated with the unauthorized
forced homestead slaughter animals, the consumption of purchased
with meat and meat-hand with treatment of contaminated wool, hides and others.
What is anthrax
Anthrax - an especially dangerous infectious disease
animals and humans, known since the time of Hippocrates. Even in those days
It suggested that pets can be a source of infection for
human. Receptive to anthrax primarily herbivorous
animals: cattle and small cattle, horses, deer, camels. But,
sick it can carnivores and omnivores (pigs).
The causative agent - anthrax bacillus (Bacillus anthracis)
exists in 2 forms vegetative occurring in the body of patients
or died of anthrax people and animals, and the spore - out animals
organisms. Sick animals are isolated anthrax germs in the urine,
feces, spotting that the air turning into spores.
It is extremely resistant forms: preserving the viability after
10 -minutnogo boiling; under the effect of dry heat at 120 - 140 degrees
they only killed after 1 - 3 hours in an autoclave at 130 degrees - by
40 minutes; 1% formalin solution and 10% sodium hydroxide solution kill them
for 2 h. Infected anthrax spores and other areas of soil
external environment objects for a long time are the reservoir and the factors
transmission of the pathogen. Received from a sick animal raw materials
(Hair, skin, hair, etc.), And items made from it retain
epidemiological risk for many years. In the soil, pathogen
Anthrax can not only be stored for many decades, but
certain favorable conditions, capable of multiplying.
Most epidemiological risk are older
pockets of soil - animal burial, which were at one time buried
corpses of animals that died from anthrax. These animal burial, even
after many decades, the production of earthworks may cause
the outbreak of the disease in humans and animals.
Manifestation of anthrax
Anthrax in humans manifests itself in the form of localized
(Skin) and generalized forms. When cutaneous form usually affects
the open areas of the body, mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and nose.
After an incubation period lasting from a few hours
up to 8 days, in the place of introduction of the pathogen appears tight, itchy
red spot at the site where a bubble is formed, filled with yellow
or dark fluid formed ulcer After opening the vial, filled
serous-hemorrhagic exudate. On the edges of the swollen sores occur "daughter bubbles", which, passing through the same stages of development, through
5 - 6 days lead to the formation of anthrax carbuncle. characteristic
symptom is a painless swelling of the tissues of an extensive increase in the adjacent
to carbuncles and distant lymph nodes. From the 2nd week of on-site
carbuncle begins to form a black scab, rising above the surface
skin rejection which takes place after the formation of scar tissue.
The disease is accompanied by an increase in body temperature to 39 - 41 degrees
within 5 - 7 days, the appearance of symptoms of intoxication.
(Septic) form of anthrax can be a complication of localized
(Skin) of the process, and when the air-dust and food ways of infection
there initially. The disease begins acutely with symptoms of intoxication
(Fever, headache, weakness, repeated vomiting), with defeat
lymph system and internal organs. The disease occurs very
hard with a 100% mortality rate. With timely treatment for medical
via treatment of cutaneous anthrax effectively ends.
In the Vologda region last case of human infection
and farm animals with anthrax was registered in 1980.
in the Vologda region. The unfavorable epizootic situation in Russia
It does not exclude the probability of importation of anthrax to the region
to feed, farm animals, animal products
and raw materials. However, the greatest danger is the resumption of activity
old soil foci of anthrax. According to reference data in
Vologda region registered more than 550 items, stationary
troubled anthrax, in the territory of which there have been cases
animal diseases, and more than 150 burial sites of the fallen from the Siberian
cattle ulcers. Currently installed the exact location
only 89 anthrax burial grounds. In a number of animal burial areas
are threatened with extinction, due to the failure of authorities
local government requirements to ensure epidemiological
security of their content (okanavlivanie, surrounded by a hedge, the designation
Prevention of anthrax
At the heart disease prevention of anthrax people and animals is
strict compliance with sanitary and veterinary regulations on the prevention and control of communicable diseases,
common to humans and animals, including control over the content of cattle cemetery,
livestock facilities, compliance with veterinary and sanitary rules
in the procurement, storage, transportation and processing of raw materials of animal
origin, the conduct of all land management activities.
It should be borne in mind that diseases are not vaccinated
animals can occur in any area where there are stationarily
disadvantaged anthrax points. Scientists have found that the pathogen
Anthrax can make on the surface of the earth, even earthworms.
The risk of infection increases in the works related to the movement
soil, at the soil washout melt or rain water. Therefore, the primary
task of prevention is timely immunization against anthrax
ulcers of farm animals (including those belonging to private
owners) in permanently disadvantaged areas. vaccinations are subject to
and persons belonging to the groups of increased "risk" of infection
The public should know that mandatory preventive measure
Anthrax is to avoid eating the meat of animals
forced to slaughter without the permission of the veterinary and sanitary inspection. dangerous
for human consumption of meat and meat products (especially imported
with other territories) that do not have a certificate of quality. Persons caring
the animals must comply with the rules of personal hygiene. At the slightest
suspected anthrax should immediately seek medical