anthrax

Content

  • Because anthrax stories
  • What is anthrax
  • Manifestation of anthrax
  • Prevention of anthrax



  • Because anthrax stories

    In 1941. on one of the islands off the northern coast of Scotland
    (Riert) on a large scale experiments were carried out by the British Army infection
    anthrax sheep in order to "work out" the defeat of the process
    bacteriological weapons. After many years, according to the English
    journalist Robert Harris, on the island "just a scratch
    It could cost a person their life. " By assumption, scholars island will
    infected with anthrax spores to 500 years.

    The Russian Federation has sharply deteriorated in recent years
    The situation on anthrax. Every year people are registered the disease
    11-13 provinces. Infection occurs when caring for a sick animal,
    slaughter, butchering, in contact with the corpse of the deceased from anthrax
    animal infected with the causative agent of the soil, livestock products,
    livestock raw materials and manufactured items from it. exciter
    It penetrates the human body through the skin or external mucous microtrauma
    membranes. There have been cases of infection by food (when used
    infected meat products), vector-borne (through the bites of flies) and
    by inhalation of dust associated with dry animal feed processing
    (Skin, hair, hair, bones, etc.). The main route of infection of animals
    - Food (through food and water).

    Infected people with anthrax are usually associated with the unauthorized
    forced homestead slaughter animals, the consumption of purchased
    with meat and meat-hand with treatment of contaminated wool, hides and others.
    materials.



    What is anthrax

    Anthrax - an especially dangerous infectious disease
    animals and humans, known since the time of Hippocrates. Even in those days
    It suggested that pets can be a source of infection for
    human. Receptive to anthrax primarily herbivorous
    animals: cattle and small cattle, horses, deer, camels. But,
    sick it can carnivores and omnivores (pigs).

    The causative agent - anthrax bacillus (Bacillus anthracis)
    exists in 2 forms vegetative occurring in the body of patients
    or died of anthrax people and animals, and the spore - out animals
    organisms. Sick animals are isolated anthrax germs in the urine,
    feces, spotting that the air turning into spores.
    It is extremely resistant forms: preserving the viability after
    10 -minutnogo boiling; under the effect of dry heat at 120 - 140 degrees
    they only killed after 1 - 3 hours in an autoclave at 130 degrees - by
    40 minutes; 1% formalin solution and 10% sodium hydroxide solution kill them
    for 2 h. Infected anthrax spores and other areas of soil
    external environment objects for a long time are the reservoir and the factors
    transmission of the pathogen. Received from a sick animal raw materials
    (Hair, skin, hair, etc.), And items made from it retain
    epidemiological risk for many years. In the soil, pathogen
    Anthrax can not only be stored for many decades, but
    certain favorable conditions, capable of multiplying.

    Most epidemiological risk are older
    pockets of soil - animal burial, which were at one time buried
    corpses of animals that died from anthrax. These animal burial, even
    after many decades, the production of earthworks may cause
    the outbreak of the disease in humans and animals.



    Manifestation of anthrax

    anthrax
    Anthrax in humans manifests itself in the form of localized
    (Skin) and generalized forms. When cutaneous form usually affects
    the open areas of the body, mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and nose.
    After an incubation period lasting from a few hours
    up to 8 days, in the place of introduction of the pathogen appears tight, itchy
    red spot at the site where a bubble is formed, filled with yellow
    or dark fluid formed ulcer After opening the vial, filled
    serous-hemorrhagic exudate. On the edges of the swollen sores occur "daughter bubbles", which, passing through the same stages of development, through
    5 - 6 days lead to the formation of anthrax carbuncle. characteristic
    symptom is a painless swelling of the tissues of an extensive increase in the adjacent
    to carbuncles and distant lymph nodes. From the 2nd week of on-site
    carbuncle begins to form a black scab, rising above the surface
    skin rejection which takes place after the formation of scar tissue.
    The disease is accompanied by an increase in body temperature to 39 - 41 degrees
    within 5 - 7 days, the appearance of symptoms of intoxication.

    Generalised
    (Septic) form of anthrax can be a complication of localized
    (Skin) of the process, and when the air-dust and food ways of infection
    there initially. The disease begins acutely with symptoms of intoxication
    (Fever, headache, weakness, repeated vomiting), with defeat
    lymph system and internal organs. The disease occurs very
    hard with a 100% mortality rate. With timely treatment for medical
    via treatment of cutaneous anthrax effectively ends.

    In the Vologda region last case of human infection
    and farm animals with anthrax was registered in 1980.
    in the Vologda region. The unfavorable epizootic situation in Russia
    It does not exclude the probability of importation of anthrax to the region
    to feed, farm animals, animal products
    and raw materials. However, the greatest danger is the resumption of activity
    old soil foci of anthrax. According to reference data in
    Vologda region registered more than 550 items, stationary
    troubled anthrax, in the territory of which there have been cases
    animal diseases, and more than 150 burial sites of the fallen from the Siberian
    cattle ulcers. Currently installed the exact location
    only 89 anthrax burial grounds. In a number of animal burial areas
    are threatened with extinction, due to the failure of authorities
    local government requirements to ensure epidemiological
    security of their content (okanavlivanie, surrounded by a hedge, the designation
    sign).



    Prevention of anthrax

    At the heart disease prevention of anthrax people and animals is
    strict compliance with sanitary and veterinary regulations on the prevention and control of communicable diseases,
    common to humans and animals, including control over the content of cattle cemetery,
    livestock facilities, compliance with veterinary and sanitary rules
    in the procurement, storage, transportation and processing of raw materials of animal
    origin, the conduct of all land management activities.

    It should be borne in mind that diseases are not vaccinated
    animals can occur in any area where there are stationarily
    disadvantaged anthrax points. Scientists have found that the pathogen
    Anthrax can make on the surface of the earth, even earthworms.
    The risk of infection increases in the works related to the movement
    soil, at the soil washout melt or rain water. Therefore, the primary
    task of prevention is timely immunization against anthrax
    ulcers of farm animals (including those belonging to private
    owners) in permanently disadvantaged areas. vaccinations are subject to
    and persons belonging to the groups of increased "risk" of infection
    anthrax.

    The public should know that mandatory preventive measure
    Anthrax is to avoid eating the meat of animals
    forced to slaughter without the permission of the veterinary and sanitary inspection. dangerous
    for human consumption of meat and meat products (especially imported
    with other territories) that do not have a certificate of quality. Persons caring
    the animals must comply with the rules of personal hygiene. At the slightest
    suspected anthrax should immediately seek medical
    help.

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