TB - an infectious disease, the causative agent of which is the tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).
In most cases, sooner or later, peoplefaced with the causative agent of tuberculosis, but 90-93 percent of cases of the disease does not occur. In place of introduction of tubercle bacilli in the lungs or the gastrointestinal tract formed by the so-called primary site of inflammation. For most people, this process ends, ie the focus is limited, and it calms down inflammation. But under such unfavorable conditions as reduced immunity, increased aggressiveness of the pathogen may spread infection and entry of tubercle bacilli bloodstream or lymphatic system to other organs, including sex. Here, the primary focus mostly localized in separate, with good microcirculation, parts of the fallopian tubes, and then may extend to the ovaries, uterus, etc. D.
However, one of the pathogen to enter the sexauthorities is not enough for the development of active tuberculosis. The infection can be stored here for a while, and then under the influence of certain factors become active and cause the development of so-called secondary tuberculosis. To develop tuberculosis, should be set up certain conditions for the pathogen - should decrease the overall protection of the organism, ie immunity. Such conditions can be created by malnutrition, adverse domestic conditions, as a result of the transferred severe infections and other diseases. TB outbreak can be triggered by hormonal changes during puberty, the onset of sexual life, abortion and childbirth. Infection of the genitals tuberculosis during intercourse is considered impossible.
The manifestation of tuberculosis of genitals
Tuberculosis of genitals is notindependent disease. This is one of the manifestations of tuberculosis infection in the body. The most common lesion of genitals is combined with pulmonary tuberculosis. The most frequently detected tuberculosis genitals in women aged 20-40 years. Its frequency among all infectious diseases of humans is small, but women need to know about this disease, because in 25% of cases, infertility is a consequence of it is tuberculosis of the genitals.
Tuberculosis bacillus mainly affectsthe fallopian tubes. Less commonly, the uterus and ovaries, and the vagina and vulva, are extremely rare. Most often, the disease practically does not manifest itself. Only in 30% of patients the general state of health worsens, the body temperature rises, weakness appears, fatigue, night sweats, weight loss occurs. Often, the only complaints of a woman with genital tuberculosis are infertility and menstrual dysfunction. What causes these problems? One of the reasons for the development of infertility is a violation of the patency of the fallopian tubes due to the development of active inflammation in them. Adnexitis with genital tuberculosis is usually bilateral. Inflammation covers all the tissues of the pipe, a lot of tuberculous tubercles, adhesions are formed in it, both inside the pipe and outside. Adhesions are initially loose, thin, subsequently thicken and turn into dense adhesions between the internal organs of the small pelvis, uterus, tubes and intestines. The fallopian tubes are deformed, twisted, often forming large inflammatory formations in the pelvic cavity. The occurrence of infertility is promoted by hormonal disorders and menstrual dysfunctions that occur as a result of inflammation in the pelvis. In the ovaries, the production of sex hormones, progesterone and estrogen is disrupted. The formation of eggs is difficult, ovulation sometimes does not occur. In addition, the spread of tuberculosis to the uterus sometimes makes it impossible to develop pregnancy due to gross adhesions that spoil its cavity. The inflammatory process in the internal genital organs, adhesions in the pelvis are sometimes manifested by the appearance of dull pulling pains in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis of genitals
Tuberculosis of the genital organs can be identified attreatment of women to the gynecologist about other diseases. Changes in the epididymis, resulting in the development of their tubercular inflammation, especially characteristic tubercles on thickened and deformed fallopian tubes resembling "beads" sometimes detected by ultrasound. If the examination female doctor suspects tuberculosis process in the genital organs, apart from the usual gynecological examinations, she will need to survey in the TB dispensary.
The woman held the TB dispensarya full range of diagnostic procedures. Special skin tests will be performed, allowing to conclude that the presence of active tuberculous inflammation in the body. To detect TB bacilli produce crops discharge from the genital tract. In addition, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be made crops menstrual blood and urine. In order to identify the causative agent of tuberculosis is also used PCR diagnostics.
For the diagnosis of changes occurring in the cavitythe uterus and fallopian tubes for tuberculosis, carried out hysterosalpingography. It allows you to see the seam, the restrictions, the violation of the Fallopian tubes, changing the shape of the uterine cavity, adhesions between its walls. In addition, when hysteroscopy is performed inspection and diagnostic curettage of the uterine cavity with subsequent histological and microbiological study material. For the detection of TB foci in the body of a woman outside the genitals certainly made X-ray of the lungs and on the testimony - of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract. To examine the internal organs of the eye to detect tuberculosis and inflammation on the surface, as well as to assess the extent of adhesions in the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity allows laparoscopy. Thus, the examination of suspected tuberculosis genitals long and laborious process that requires patience and a woman realizing her need of the proposed procedures.
Treatment of tuberculosis of genitals
When a woman in the genital organstubercle bacillus treatment is carried out only in the TB dispensary using specific chemotherapy drugs for 6-12 months. General principles of treatment - timely initiation, use of modern chemotherapy, Individual selection of the dosing regimen, the regularity of their reception. During treatment, be sure to use a product aimed at the elimination of adhesions in the pelvis, vitamins, physiotherapy. Sometimes patients require surgical application.