It is characterized by long incubationperiod, and over a long lesion of the skin, mucous membranes, peripheral nervous system and internal organs. The causative agent of the common chronic infectious disease is Mycobacterium leprae.
According to WHO information in the world there are about15 million leprosy patients, mainly in South America, Africa and Asia. Sporadic cases are everywhere. Leprosy is considered malozaraznym disease in which the decisive factor is prolonged, repeated contact, during which there is sensitization of the organism. Most susceptible to leprosy children, occupational exposure of medical workers is practically not observed.
The incubation period lasts from W to 10 years or more. At the end of his celebrated general symptoms: fever, weakness, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and others. There are three types of the disease.
Symptoms of leprosy
Lepromatous type. Cutaneous lesions located on the face, backof the hands, forearms, legs and presented disabilities tubercles (leproma). Their color from pink to bluish-red, the surface smooth and shiny, sometimes covered with pityriasis scales. Leproma hemispherical raised above the skin surface and closely adhering to each other often form continuous uneven infiltration. With the defeat of the face give him the appearance of "the lion's muzzle."
Along with skin changes oftenobserved mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, larynx. Patients complain of dryness on the mouth, nose, sukrovichnoe discharge, frequent bleeding, shortness of breath, hoarseness. Ulceration nasal septum cartilage leads to deformation.
Eye involvement is a violation of the visualfunction and even total blindness. Of the internal organs affected liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys and others. Violated all kinds of skin sensitivity (thermal, tactile and painful), especially in the hands and feet. Patients who are not feeling the heat and cold, feeling pain, are often subjected to severe burns, injury. Some patients are weakened and exhausted muscles of the face and limbs, fingers and toes are bent, shortened, and sometimes destroyed. On the feet appear deep ulcers that are difficult to treat. These effects lead to profound disability patients.
Patients with lepromatous type of leprosy are the main source of infection of leprosy and pose a greater danger to others.
tuberculoid type is more than benign andcharacterized by a high resistance of the organism, it is easier to treat. It affects mainly the skin, where there are plaques or red bumps, various shapes and sizes with sharp edges. After healing of lesions are white spots - scars or depigmentation.
Sometimes it affects the peripheral nerves withsubsequent violation in the course of their temperature, pain and tactile sensitivity of the skin. Chronic tuberculoid leprosy can be interrupted by an aggravation, during which the lesions are often detected leprosy mycobacteria.
Undifferentiated (indeterminate) type It occurs mainly in children and characterized bymainly neurological symptoms (polyneuritis) and spots on the skin of various sizes and shapes. The hair on the affected areas fall, broken skin sensitivity and sweating. The affected nerves thicken, it becomes painful. After a few months of developing muscle atrophy, leading to deformation of the upper and lower extremities. The face becomes masklike, facial expression disappears. Develop paralysis and paresis. On the soles of the feet appear perforating ulcers, difficult to treat.
Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of leprosy
It is necessary to take into account the history data availabilitysensitivity disorders, skin rashes, cream tint sclera, loss of eyebrows, eyelashes, polyneuritis, etc. It is necessary to carry out bacteriological tests scrapings from the nasal mucosa, put lepraminovuyu sample.
Used drugs sulfone series,diaminodifenolsulfon (VAT) and its analogues - avlosulfon, sulfetron, solyusulfon, diutsifon dipson and others. Sulfones in the treatment necessary to simultaneously apply iron preparations, liver, etc. Treatment for complex chronic-intermittent method in specialized institutions - leprosarium.
Prevention. The identification and isolation of patients with active symptoms of leprosy. The epidemic foci conducted mass inspections. Antigenic proximity agents of leprosy and tuberculosis was the basis of BCG vaccination for prevention of leprosy.