What is tularemia

Content

  • tularemia
  • What are the symptoms of tularemia
  • Treatment and prevention of tularemia



  • tularemia

    Tularemia - zoonosis, having natural foci.
    It is characterized by intoxication, fever, lymph defeat
    nodes. The causative agent of the disease - small bacterium. When heated to 60C
    dies in 5-10 minutes. Reservoirs sticks tularemia - hares,
    rabbits, water rats, voles. In natural foci periodically
    epizootic occur.

    Infection is transmitted to humans or directly in contact with
    animals (hunting), or through contaminated food and water, rarely
    by aspiration (in the processing of grain and forage products,
    threshing grain), blood-sucking insects (horsefly, ticks, mosquitoes, etc..).




    What are the symptoms of tularemia

    incubatory
    period ranging from several hours to 3-7 days. There are bubonic, pulmonary and
    generalized (spread throughout the body) form. Disease
    It begins acutely with a sudden rise in temperature up to 38,5-40 degrees
    S. appears sharp headache, dizziness, pain in the leg muscles,
    back and lumbar region, loss of appetite. In severe cases it may
    be vomiting, nosebleeds. Characterized by severe sweating,
    sleep disorders as insomnia, sleepiness, or vice versa. Often
    euphoria and observed increased activity against high temperature.
    Marked redness and swelling of the face and conjunctiva in the first days
    disease. Later on the oral mucosa appears point
    hemorrhage. Language overlaid with a grayish bloom. A characteristic feature -
    increase in lymph nodes of different sizes that can be from
    pea to walnut.

    What is tularemia
    Cardio-vascular system marked bradycardia,
    hypotension. In blood moderate leukocytosis with neutrophilic shift.
    Liver, spleen did not increase in all cases. Stomach ache
    possible with a substantial increase in mesenteric lymph
    nodes. Fever lasts for up to 30 days b.

    Bubonic form of tularemia. Pathogen penetrates the skin without
    leaving a trace, after 2-3 days of illness develops regional
    lymphadenitis. Buboes little disease and have clear contours of up to 5
    cm. Subsequently bubo softening occurs or (1-4 months.) or
    its spontaneous opening with the release of a thick creamy pus
    and the formation of a fistula tularemia. Most affected axillary,
    inguinal and femoral lymph nodes.

    Ulceroglandular form is characterized by a primary lesion at the site entrance gate of infection.

    Eye-bubonic form develops in contact with the pathogen at the
    conjunctiva. Typically, the emergence of follicular growths
    yellow millet grain size up to the conjunctiva.

    Bubonic develops in the parotid or submandibular areas, long-term course of the disease.

    Anginal-bubonic form occurs in the primary lesion
    tonsils mucous membrane, usually one. It occurs when the food way
    infection.

    Any form of tularemia, mainly affecting the internal
    authorities. Pulmonary form - often registered in the autumn-winter period.
    Generalized form of flows by type of generalized infection with severe
    toxicity, loss of consciousness, delirium, severe headache and muscle
    pains.

    Complications can be specific (secondary tularemia
    pneumonia, peritonitis, pericarditis, meningoencephalitis), and abscesses.
    gangrene due to secondary bacterial flora.

    Diagnosis is based on a sample kozhioallergicheskoy and serological tests.



    Treatment and prevention of tularemia

    patient hospitalization.
    The leading role is given antibiotics (tetracycline,
    aminoglycosides, streptomycin, chloramphenicol), treatment is carried out to 5 days
    normal temperature. When protracted forms used
    Treatment with antibiotics combined with the vaccine, which is administered
    intradermally, intramuscularly at a dose of 1-15 million microbial bodies on a inRektsiyu
    intervals of 3-5 days, the treatment course of 6-10 sessions. Recommended
    vitamin therapy, repeated transfusions of donated blood. When
    fluctuations bubo - surgery (wide incision to
    emptying bubo). Patients discharged from hospital after a full
    clinical recovery.

    elimination
    natural foci or reduction of their territories. Protection of dwellings, wells,
    open reservoirs, products from rodents. conduct
    mass routine vaccination in outbreaks of tularemia.

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