Tularemia - zoonosis, having natural foci.
It is characterized by intoxication, fever, lymph defeat
nodes. The causative agent of the disease - small bacterium. When heated to 60C
dies in 5-10 minutes. Reservoirs sticks tularemia - hares,
rabbits, water rats, voles. In natural foci periodically
animals (hunting), or through contaminated food and water, rarely
by aspiration (in the processing of grain and forage products,
threshing grain), blood-sucking insects (horsefly, ticks, mosquitoes, etc..).
What are the symptoms of tularemia
period ranging from several hours to 3-7 days. There are bubonic, pulmonary and
generalized (spread throughout the body) form. Disease
It begins acutely with a sudden rise in temperature up to 38,5-40 degrees
S. appears sharp headache, dizziness, pain in the leg muscles,
back and lumbar region, loss of appetite. In severe cases it may
be vomiting, nosebleeds. Characterized by severe sweating,
sleep disorders as insomnia, sleepiness, or vice versa. Often
euphoria and observed increased activity against high temperature.
Marked redness and swelling of the face and conjunctiva in the first days
disease. Later on the oral mucosa appears point
hemorrhage. Language overlaid with a grayish bloom. A characteristic feature -
increase in lymph nodes of different sizes that can be from
pea to walnut.
Cardio-vascular system marked bradycardia,
hypotension. In blood moderate leukocytosis with neutrophilic shift.
Liver, spleen did not increase in all cases. Stomach ache
possible with a substantial increase in mesenteric lymph
nodes. Fever lasts for up to 30 days b.
leaving a trace, after 2-3 days of illness develops regional
lymphadenitis. Buboes little disease and have clear contours of up to 5
cm. Subsequently bubo softening occurs or (1-4 months.) or
its spontaneous opening with the release of a thick creamy pus
and the formation of a fistula tularemia. Most affected axillary,
inguinal and femoral lymph nodes.
Ulceroglandular form is characterized by a primary lesion at the site entrance gate of infection.
conjunctiva. Typically, the emergence of follicular growths
yellow millet grain size up to the conjunctiva.
Bubonic develops in the parotid or submandibular areas, long-term course of the disease.
tonsils mucous membrane, usually one. It occurs when the food way
authorities. Pulmonary form - often registered in the autumn-winter period.
Generalized form of flows by type of generalized infection with severe
toxicity, loss of consciousness, delirium, severe headache and muscle
pneumonia, peritonitis, pericarditis, meningoencephalitis), and abscesses.
gangrene due to secondary bacterial flora.
Diagnosis is based on a sample kozhioallergicheskoy and serological tests.
Treatment and prevention of tularemia
The leading role is given antibiotics (tetracycline,
aminoglycosides, streptomycin, chloramphenicol), treatment is carried out to 5 days
normal temperature. When protracted forms used
Treatment with antibiotics combined with the vaccine, which is administered
intradermally, intramuscularly at a dose of 1-15 million microbial bodies on a inRektsiyu
intervals of 3-5 days, the treatment course of 6-10 sessions. Recommended
vitamin therapy, repeated transfusions of donated blood. When
fluctuations bubo - surgery (wide incision to
emptying bubo). Patients discharged from hospital after a full
natural foci or reduction of their territories. Protection of dwellings, wells,
open reservoirs, products from rodents. conduct
mass routine vaccination in outbreaks of tularemia.