Approaches to the treatment of epilepsy
Treatment is carried out in four areas:
addressing the factors (situations or substances) that provoke seizures;
social rehabilitation of the patient, contributing to its transformation into a full-fledged member of society;
Family and friends of the patient counseling with the aim to develop the right attitude to himself and his illness.
Sometimes it is possible to identify the specific reasonsseizures which can be blocked by drugs or by surgery. The majority of patients with life requires taking anticonvulsant (antiepileptic) agents for the prevention of seizures.
Drug therapy. Its possibility was first opened over 100 years ago, when they discovered the ability to prevent attacks bromides. In the early 20th century. phenobarbital appeared, then went into practice diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin or phenytoin). Although in the following years there were many other medications, phenobarbital and diphenylhydantoin remain one of the most effective and widely used tools. Since all antiepileptic drugs have side effects, the doctor by assigning them to carefully observe the patient. You can not stop taking the drug without doctor's permission.
In recent years, the metabolism of antiepilepticdrugs and their mechanism of action has been studied in detail, made possible by the development of methods for the quantitative determination of the concentration of drug in the blood. On the basis of these definitions, doctors may choose for each patient the most appropriate dose, and in addition, to identify patients who avoid taking drugs or are taking in too much.
Surgery. In rare cases, when the seizures can not beprevented by drugs, surgical intervention is shown. It is also used in the presence of anomalies that may be removed without damaging the surrounding brain tissue. When uncontrolled, threatening seizures of life in major medical centers conduct more extensive and complex operations.
Other treatments. Mostly children prescribed a special ketogenic diet, which is effective in some cases of epilepsy. Follow the diet should be under strict medical supervision.
To a certain extent also effective control overpatient environment and the prevention of emotional stress. Another simple way to prevent seizures - elimination of precipitating factors, such as fatigue, alcohol or drugs. Rule for the patient should be "no extremes."
Rehabilitation of patients
For many centuries with epilepsy wereassociated myths and superstitions. The patient and his family is important to understand that he can lead a normal life without undue constraints, to receive education, training, get married and support a family. There is no need to deny or hide their disease.
Employment remains a serious problem, butdisease should not be a reason for refusal, if the work meets the physical abilities of the patient. The claim that seizures are a common cause of work-related injuries, does not have sufficient grounds.
First aid in a fit of epilepsy
During the attack need to prevent possible injury. You should not physically restrain spasms - it is dangerous.
The patient is placed on a soft flatsurface under the head enclose a pillow or folded blanket / clothes. If the mouth is open, it is advisable to insert between teeth folded handkerchief or other soft object. This will prevent biting tongue, cheeks or damage to teeth. If the jaws are closed tightly, do not try to force open the mouth or between the teeth to insert an object. With increased salivation patient's head is turned to one side, so that saliva can drain through the corner of his mouth and did not get into the respiratory tract.
It is necessary to closely monitor the development of the attack, then to most accurately describe his doctor.