Meningitis - an inflammation of the soft brainmembranes (tissues that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord). Along with the usual protective inflamed tissue, may also be hit and the brain.
Although meningitis can develop at any age,Yet for the most part suffer from it babies and young children. The risk of meningitis is slightly higher for babies-boys than baby girls. The peak incidence of meningitis is most often in the summer months. The severity and duration of the disease depend on the child's age, general state of health before the onset of the disease and speed of treatment. Meningitis can lead to rapid deterioration and a sharp take life-threatening cases, in the absence of treatment, wrong treatment and the treatment started too late.
There are two main forms of meningitis: viral and bacterial. Usually viral meningitis caused widespread types of viruses; Bacterial - more severe and can cause long-term complications. Bacterial meningitis is potentially the most short-lived and damaging body infection.
Viral meningitis is usually associated with the previouslywhich developed a viral infection that initially manifested itself as an infectious lesion nose and throat, stomach or intestines, or as another option fleeting viral infections. Viral meningitis usually lasts less than two weeks; In mild cases, recovery begins in the 3rd or 4th day. Full recovery of children with viral meningitis, there is almost always, although bears can develop temporary muscle weakness and incoordination.
Bacterial meningitis is particularly dangerous forinfants under the age of six months old. Children under the age of one month at especially high risk of developing life-threatening disease when in contact with patients. Over the past half-century mortality associated with bacterial meningitis, fell sharply. The older children are, the lower the mortality caused by meningitis.
Common to all types of meningitis symptomsThey are: nausea, vomiting, not bringing relief, persistent headache, back pain, muscle tension back of the head, loss of appetite, sensitivity to light, drowsiness and irritability. The temperature is usually kept within 37,5-38,5 degrees.
In cases of viral meningitis affects childrenolder than 10 years, symptoms can appear quite suddenly. In children aged 2 to 10 years is often first develops a fever and only then appear drowsiness and irritability. Infants may be irritable and only detected more dense and astringent than the elastic fontanelle (soft spot on top of the head). Sooner or in conjunction with other symptoms of aseptic meningitis in children of any age can get a rash.
In the first case of bacterial meningitisdevelops a fever, and then there are other typical symptoms. May be present muscle pain, and respiratory disorders and digestive. A common symptom among older children with bacterial meningitis are headache and bulging fontanelle. May develop seizures convulsions, drowsiness and unconsciousness.
The diagnosis of meningitis puts the doctor. Following the discovery of the characteristic symptoms and examination of the child's doctor can confirm the diagnosis by conducting a lumbar puncture, sometimes called a lumbar puncture. A small sterile needle is inserted into the spinal canal containing the spinal fluid. Prick always make the lower back, below the lower end of the spinal cord, to avoid possible damage to the nerves. Take a small sample of cerebrospinal fluid and analyzed for the presence of blood cells and infectious organisms, and protein content is measured in the blood sugar.
Bacterial meningitis can causea certain number of unusual and sometimes long-term complications. Among the most frequent and severe - seizures, paralysis, blindness, hearing loss and mental retardation. Learning Problems often arise as a consequence of bacterial meningitis, but they are usually minor. In many complications eventually comes improved, depending on the severity of a previous infection, and the quality of long-term care and treatment required child. Return of the disease can occur if a child with bacterial meningitis does not receive the full course of treatment of essential drugs.
After the doctor make a diagnosis of viralmeningitis, many children are treated at home. The child should be given the rest in bed, drinking plenty of fluids. However, if the amount of urine is significantly reduced, it may indicate a hormonal disorder, renal function weakens. This should notify the physician, since you may need to temporarily restrict fluid intake. In severe cases, treatment is carried out in a hospital.
Every infant or child sickbacterial meningitis must be hospitalized. In accordance with what specific bacteria caused disease, prescribe antibiotics. They are administered at least 10 days; at least for a few days after the fever. Constantly should be monitored for the condition of the patient (pulse rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and temperature). It is necessary to monitor the ratio drunk and allocated liquid to protect against fluid retention in the body of the patient. In the event of seizures prescribed anticonvulsant drugs.
It should immediately seek medicalhelp in case of a child vomiting, not bringing relief, high temperature (from 38.3 to 41.1 degrees), the tension of muscles and the nape of extreme drowsiness. Meningitis may begin suddenly and progress rapidly, and the full restoration of health often depends on how quickly will be diagnosed and treatment begins.