It has such an impact on a personman saying that people with speech disorders stereotypically perceived as people with serious personal problems, although this is not true. One type of disorder is stuttering. It is a violation of rhythm and fluency, generating difficulties in oral communication. Each person is broken it. An ordinary person 7-10 percent utters speech interruption. This happens in the form of repetition of certain words or phrases (sounds: ah, um, or interjections). However, when the breaks in speech make up more than 10 percent - it is stuttering.
While for most people itconsidered something self-evident, stuttering experiencing enormous difficulties in using the spoken language in everyday life. The world stutters 1 percent of the population or 60 million of the six billion people. For many everyday communication is a constant struggle.
Causes of stuttering
Most often, stuttering occurs at a young age,when not so honed speech automatisms. Contribute to the development of stuttering stress reaction (fear, the death of a loved one, favorite animal, parental divorce, scandals in the family, etc.), so that the causes of stuttering - always a child. On the stuttering can be like a violation of speech as we chant, in which the patient says it quickly, slowly, loudly, quietly - a reprimand is characteristic of cerebellar disease, and is also called the speech ataxia. True stuttering increases with excitement wanes in a relaxed atmosphere, people who stutter sing well.
What happens when stuttering
Stuttering - is the result of recurrentmuscle spasms of the vocal apparatus: a few short-term muscle contractions lead to the involuntary repetition of certain sounds and syllables (clonic stuttering), severe prolonged contraction of muscles causes a delay of speech (stuttering tonic); often a mixed form of stuttering when combining both types of violations. For muscle spasms of the vocal apparatus sometimes join spasms of the facial muscles and limbs.
Stuttering is often accompanied by stress andanxiety. Interrupting the speech when stuttering is different. This may be a repetition of sounds or syllables, silent blocks, unnatural stretching of sounds, grimaces or tics face. If your child hesitates, stumbles, or repeats prior to the pronunciation of a word or phrase, look at it closely. Harshness it between the ages of two to seven years is the norm. But learning to understand and use speech - a process long and complicated. Many children understand it before they can express their thoughts in words. Uncertain speech and repetition in the child's speech is the norm for this. But if they occur too often associated with stress or avoidant behavior, this may indicate a beginning stuttering. The following signs indicate the initial stage of stuttering:
- Frequent repetition of words.
- Prolonged sounds.
- Avoiding the situation of communication, the phrase: "I can not say."
- Upset look.
- Tense the muscles of the face and neck and voice.
- It rises with unexpected voice volume.
Correction of stuttering - a task speech therapist. If the cause of stuttering is a psychological trauma, the pediatrician may refer you to a neuropsychiatrist. There are several ways by which you can reduce the risk of your child stuttering. First of all, you should be clear, if you are not the cause of your child's stuttering. Changes you can make deal with your manner of speaking, the regime of the day, and create an environment of positively affecting your child.
- Speak slowly and smoothly.
- Pauses in the speech, especially in thewhen the child has already said something, but you have not. This allows your child to say something else, and you time to think about what it means to say your child.
- Ask as many questions as do smaller teams. Questions put pressure on the child, he feels the time limit for response. The best phrases and comments begin with the words: "Come on," "What about?" "What do you think?"