Speech has such an effect on personalitya person who says that people with speech disorders are stereotyped as people with serious personality problems, although this is not true. One type of disorder is stuttering. This is a violation of the rhythm and smoothness of speech, causing difficulties in verbal communication. Each person has intermittent speech. In an ordinary person, 7-10 percent of the speech is interrupted. It happens in the form of repetition of separate words or phrases (sounds: e-e, mm, or interjection). However, when breaks in speech are more than 10 percent - this is a stutter.
While for most people itconsidered something self-evident, stuttering experiencing enormous difficulties in using the spoken language in everyday life. The world stutters 1 percent of the population or 60 million of the six billion people. For many everyday communication is a constant struggle.
Causes of stuttering
Most often stuttering occurs at a young age,when speech automatisms have not yet been perfected. They contribute to the development of stuttering stress reactions (fright, death of a loved one, beloved animal, divorce of parents, family scandals, etc.), therefore, the causes of stuttering are always in childhood. Stuttering of speech can be like a speech disorder such as chanted speech, in which the patient speaks quickly, sometimes slowly, then loudly, then quietly - such a reprimand is characteristic of cerebellar disease and is otherwise called speech ataxia. True stuttering intensifies with excitement, weakens in a relaxed atmosphere, stuttering people sing well.
What happens when stuttering
Stuttering - is the result of recurrentmuscle spasms of the vocal apparatus: a few short-term muscle contractions lead to the involuntary repetition of certain sounds and syllables (clonic stuttering), severe prolonged contraction of muscles causes a delay of speech (stuttering tonic); often a mixed form of stuttering when combining both types of violations. For muscle spasms of the vocal apparatus sometimes join spasms of the facial muscles and limbs.
Stuttering is often accompanied by stress andanxiety. Interruption of speech during stuttering is different. In this case, repetitions of sounds or syllables, blocks of silence, unnatural stretching of sounds, grimaces of the face or tics are possible. If your child hesitates, repeats, or stumbles before pronouncing a word or phrase, take a closer look at it. Soft speech between the ages of two to seven years is the norm. But learning to understand and use speech is a long and complex process. Many children understand speech before they can express their thoughts verbally. Uncertain speech and repetition in children's speech are a variant of the norm. But if they occur too often and are associated with stress or avoiding behavior, this may indicate a starting stutter. The following symptoms indicate the initial stage of stuttering:
- Frequent repetition of words.
- Prolonged sounds.
- Avoiding the situation of communication, the phrase: "I can not say."
- Upset look.
- Tense the muscles of the face and neck and voice.
- It rises with unexpected voice volume.
Correction of stuttering is the task of a speech therapist. If the cause of stuttering is mental trauma, then the pediatrician can refer you to a neuropsychiatrist. There are several ways in which you can reduce the risk of stuttering in your child. First of all, you should clearly understand if you are the cause of stuttering in your child. The changes you can make relate to your way of speaking, your daily routine, and creating a positive atmosphere for your child.
- Speak slowly and smoothly.
- Pauses in the speech, especially in thewhen the child has already said something, but you have not. This allows your child to say something else, and you time to think about what it means to say your child.
- Ask as many questions as do smaller teams. Questions put pressure on the child, he feels the time limit for response. The best phrases and comments begin with the words: "Come on," "What about?" "What do you think?"