Asbestosis - a widespread type of fibrosis lung tissue caused by inhalation of asbestos dust.
Asbestos fiber includes mineralsilicates of different chemical composition. Once in the airways, asbestos fibers are deposited deep in the lungs, causing fibrosis. Inhalation of asbestos dust can cause pleural thickening - a two-layer membrane covering the lungs.
People who work with asbestos, increased riskthe development of lung disease. This, though to a lesser extent, applies to workers who demolished the building, where there is insulation containing asbestos. The more a person is in contact with asbestos fibers, the higher the risk of developing asbestosis.
Asbestos affects not only individuals,in direct contact with it. Asbestosis can develop painters, electricians, working alongside those who are dealing with insulating materials in shipyards, as well as the wives of workers, men laundered overalls. The overall impact is possible when working with asbestos-containing materials, sprayed on steel beams in many large buildings to prevent their deflection in case of fire. Individual cases have been reported among residents in the neighborhood of asbestos plant in London, as well as near asbestos mines in South Africa.
Asbestos was widely used for the first time in the 40'syears of the present century. Since 1975, it began to replace glass or slag wool. Asbestos is mainly fibrosis (asbestosis), lung cancer, respiratory tract, pleura and peritoneum sometimes.
Patients complain of shortness of breath, cough, chest pain,anorexia, weakness, fatigue. Disease usually develops slowly, its first symptoms appear not earlier than in 3-5 years after the start of work in conditions of exposure to asbestos dust. On physical examination revealed signs of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis with emphysema.
When sputum is often foundasbestos fibers or corpuscles, but by themselves they are only evidence of dust inhalation took place and gave no reason for the diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis. Serious diagnostic importance is the detection of clusters of radially disposed asbestos bodies.
On the X-ray light (mainly inthe lower and middle sections) are defined by delicate diffuse reticulation and fine cellularity. Nodules are located in the lower lungs. Often reveal pleural adhesions.
Asbestosis is often complicated by pneumonia, oftenleading to the formation of bronchiectasis. In advanced cases of asbestosis may lead to right ventricular failure on the basis of cardiopulmonary syndrome. The question of the relationship between asbestosis and lung tuberculosis has not been settled. Most researchers believe that the asbestos dust contributes to the activation of tuberculosis.
No specific treatment exists. Spend a supportive treatment in the same way as in diffuse interstitial fibrosis of any other etiology. Generally newly diagnosed disease may be due to exposure to asbestos for several years prior to its appearance and, in spite of the fact that the patient does not work in the industry.