The concept of chronic radiation sickness
Chronic radiation sickness - a common long-termcurrent disease that develops as a result of long-term repeated exposure to ionizing radiation. Exposure to radiation is carried out in relatively small (single) doses significantly exceeding the maximum allowable. Chronic radiation sickness can occur both in military terms and in terms of occupational exposure in flagrant violation of safety rules.
current versions of chronic radiation sickness
The main symptoms and course of chronic radiation sickness depends on the total radiation dose, the nature of the absorbed dose distribution, as well as from individual radiosensitivity of the organism.
In this regard, currently proposedallocate three variants of chronic radiation sickness in accordance with the terms of radiation exposure on the body. The first - the basic variant of the disease - characterized by an external relatively even prolonged exposure to radiation. The second option includes the cases of chronic radiation sickness from external and internal exposure, characterized by selective local impact of radiation on tissues and organs. The third variant of chronic radiation sickness cover combined forms, characterized by different combination of general and local radiation exposure. The most complete detailed symptomatology of the disease occurs mainly in the first embodiment.
Chronic radiation sickness characterized by a gradual slow development, long and persistent current slow recovery of disturbed functions. Disease is divided into three periods:
- during the formation of the disease
- recovery period
- period of long-term complications and consequences
For the conditions of chronic exposure is notIt established a sufficiently accurate correlation between the total dose of radiation received and the severity of the disease. With a total dose of less than 1-1.5 Gray distinct clinical forms do not develop at total dose over 4-5 Gray severe form of chronic radiation sickness.
The main symptoms of the disease
The disease usually develops after years of 2-3-5the beginning of exposure to radiation, with the single and total values significantly exceed the established dose limits. Symptoms appear gradually and progress. When deployed form of the disease manifests itself in the form of changes in the central nervous system, bone marrow suppression and bleeding. Often observed inhibition of gastric and intestinal functions, decreased function of the endocrine glands (especially sexual), trophic skin disorders (dry skin, actinic increased, decreased elasticity) and the nail plate, baldness.
Chronic radiation sickness on the severity of the disease can be divided into light (I degree), medium (II degree) and severe (III degree).
Symptoms of chronic radiation sickness Idegree (mild) characterized by symptoms of fatigue - increased fatigue, irritability, reduced working capacity, often memory impairment, sleep. Patients suffering from chronic radiation sickness with difficulty falling asleep, sleep sensitively, easy to wake up, do not feel well rested in the morning. Often concerned about stupid headaches. There are complaints of appetite loss. Objective symptoms are mild and few. Often found local sweating, nasal mucosal disorder. No evidence of organic changes of internal organs can not be detected, but small functional changes especially in the digestive system occur quite often (inhibition of acid-forming and secretory functions of the stomach, bowels, tendency to constipation, etc.). In this form of the disease the blood system changes little. The content of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, which usually appears to be normal. At this stage, the disease has a favorable course, and almost clinical recovery, as a rule, can occur in a relatively short period of time (7-8 weeks).
Chronic radiation disease of moderate severity (IIdegree) is characterized by the expanded variety of symptoms. Also clearly defined symptoms of fatigue, in this form of the disease occur bleeding, various trophic disorders, changes in the internal organs. A distinctive feature of the clinical manifestations of depression is a function of the blood system. Complaints are numerous and are expressed more sharply than in chronic radiation sickness I degree.
The disease occurs persistently, over the years, with frequentexacerbations caused by various adverse non-specific effects (infections, fatigue, etc.). Patients in need of multiple stationary and sanatorium treatment, the disease often ends incomplete recovery.
Severe radiation sickness characterizedsharp myelosuppression with severe hemorrhagic syndrome, marked by organic lesions of the central nervous system and internal organs, in-depth exchange and trophic disorders often develop infectious complications. The disease is characterized by progressive course, and often ends with a fatal outcome as a result of infectious or hemorrhagic complications. It may, however, occur and incomplete clinical and hematological remission.
The principles of treatment and prevention of diseases
Treatment of chronic radiation sickness should becomplex, individual, possible early. The absolute requirement is that the cessation of contact with sources of ionizing radiation. All patients with chronic radiation sickness (or even suspected of having the disease) to be stationary examination and treatment.
The main condition for the prevention of chronicradiation sickness is the strict observance of safety rules and the corresponding monitored for working with sources of ionizing radiation. Some importance are the correct selection of personnel to work with the sources of radiation, systematic health surveillance, obschegigienicheskih measures aimed at health promotion.