Carcinoid - tumor structurally resembles cancer, in some cases having biological activity.
The term "carcinoid" was first proposed by Oberndorfer in 1907 to refer to resemble carcinoma, benign tumors of the small intestine.
It was subsequently found that these tumors are flowing relatively benign, have the ability to metastasize and often lead to serious complications.
Carcinoid is a relatively rare tumor,It is localized predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract: 70-80% of cases in the appendix, at least in the stomach and intestine. It also occurs in the pancreas in the form of insulitis, including in the bronchi, the gall bladder, liver and other organs. Its value ranges from 0.1 to 2 cm, it sometimes reaches 8.6 cm in diameter. The tumor has plotnoelasticheskuyu consistency, gray-yellow in color.
Feature carcinoids - slow growth (tumorlong as it is in a dormant state). Metastases occur in the later stages of the disease. Tumor metastasis is observed in approximately 30-40% of cases; with the exception of carcinoid of the appendix, which metastasizes rarely.
Clinically distinguish the so-callednonfunctioning carcinoid and functioning (with carcinoid syndrome). Non-functioning carcinoid, especially the appendix may be asymptomatic for a long time.
Only in the later stages of the pain may appear, develop, depending on the localization of the pathological process of bowel obstruction, peritonitis, bleeding, pulmonary atelectasis.
Carcinoid syndrome occurs in approximately25% of patients, usually in those cases where there are metastases. It is due to the release of tumor cells of biologically active substances - serotonin, histamine, kinins. Carcinoid syndrome is manifested by the tides in the form of diffuse or patchy redness of the skin of the face and upper body, accompanied by a feeling of heat, sometimes tachycardia, drop in blood pressure.
Such attacks occur spontaneously or in connection withalcohol intake, food, stressful situations. They are short-term or continuing for several days, may occur, with spastic abdominal pain, diarrhea, shortness of breath, agitated. In the long process of patients appears pigmentation of the skin, there are endocardial damage heart valves, the phenomenon of bronchospasm.
A few words about the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid
Diagnosis carcinoid, especially at lowTumor size, difficult. Non-functioning carcinoid in an early stage is most often random finding during examination or surgery; In advanced cases, the diagnosis as well as in other tumors, the data is not based clinical, laboratory and instrumental studies.
Treatment operative. When large tumor size and even the presence of extensive metastases recommended removal of the primary tumor and, if possible, metastatic nodes, which makes it possible to reduce the clinical manifestations. Chemotherapeutic agents are generally ineffective. Patients with carcinoid syndrome symptomatic treatment. The forecast in the absence of metastases relatively favorable.