Lung cancer - symptoms of the disease. Stages of lung cancer. Diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer

Content


What is lung cancerLung cancer - the most commononcological disease worldwide. According to the data for the year 2012, it was revealed 1.82 million new cases. 1.56 million people were victims of the disease. Every 3-4 million cigarettes smoked are the death of a smoker due to cancer.


What is lung cancer

Lung cancer - a malignant tumor originating from the bronchial mucosa. Tumors originating from epithelial tissue, called cancer.

The incidence of lung cancer

In the Russian Federation, according to WHO, cancer incidence is 30-40 per 100 thousand. Population. There is a tendency to an increase in morbidity.

The disease is diagnosed mainly in smokers over the age of 50 years. Over the past decade, the death rate from lung cancer among women beginning to catch up with performance in men.


Lung Cancer - Causes

As mentioned, the main reason leading to the emergence of the disease, according to smoking. This is confirmed by numerous studies and statistics.

Tobacco smoke contains 73 compounds knownas carcinogens and poisons. Including benzopyrene, radon, nitrosamine, polonium. Nicotine exacerbates the situation by suppressing the immune system, reducing the body's ability to fight cancer.

90% of cases are caused by smoking. The risk of lung cancer in smokers is 13 times higher than non-faces.

Passive smoking also causes lung cancer and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of non-smokers. It is proved that the risk of disease in people living with a smoker, up 30%.

When you stop smoking the risk of lung cancer decreases gradually.


Other causes of lung cancer

These include the harmful environmental factors, chemicals, viral infection. Of great importance is the air pollution. In industrial areas, the incidence of lung cancer higher.


Lung Cancer - Symptoms

The symptoms of lung cancer:

  • cough, sputum mixed with blood, difficulty in breathing, shortness of breath;
  • unexplained weakness, weight loss;
  • chest pain, difficulty swallowing, pain in the bones;
  • neurological symptoms during the germination of the major branches of the sympathetic nervous system, the vagus nerve.

When metastasis can be detected and other symptoms. Lung cancer often metastasizes to the brain, liver, bone, kidney and adrenal glands.

The first sign of lung cancer in some cases - a sudden intolerance to tobacco smoke, smoking cessation sharp.


Stage Lung Cancer

Stages of lung cancer is classified according tothe size and the presence of distant metastases. The stage has important prognostic value. Thus, 80% of patients with stage 1 disease die before 5 years abroad. Without treatment, a couple of years the disease kills nearly 90% of cases. There are the following stages of the disease:

  • lung cancer - Stage 1: tumor less than 3 cm without metastases;
  • lung cancer - Stage 2: 6 cm tumor, metastases in local lymph nodes;
  • lung cancer - Stage 3: Tumor more than 6 cm, invades adjacent lobe, bronchus. Metastases in the lymph nodes of the mediastinum;
  • lung cancer - Stage 4: the tumor grows beyond the lung metastases in distant organs.

Combination therapy significantly improves the prognosis. The presence of distant metastases worsens survival rates.


Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

The main methods of diagnosis of lung cancer:

  • screening method - chest X-ray;
  • chest X-ray;
  • computed tomography, positron emission tomography, NMR - tomography;
  • bronchoscopy, endoscopic biopsy;
  • US.

In recent years, widely used method of detection of tumor markers in the patient's blood. They can be used to diagnose the disease, identify the type of tumor, to predict, correct treatment.

The growing importance in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer has an immunohistochemical analysis. Determination of specific gene expression has important prognostic value.


Lung cancer - Treatment

Lung Cancer TreatmentHistorically, the treatment of lung cancer is conductedsurgically. However, this method is effective only in the initial stages of the disease. After surgical removal of the tumor is high incidence of recurrence.

For this reason, today the most appropriate and effective way to find the combination treatment.

Consistent application of the surgicalremoving the tumor, radiation therapy, chemotherapy gives better results. Surgery is not acceptable in all patients. Advanced cases of lung cancer are treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Lung cancer, depending on the histologic type, only poorly to chemotherapy treatment.

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