Pancreatic cancer: risk factors and precursors of disease
Pancreatic cancer refers to localizationsCancer incidence and mortality of which has been steadily increasing throughout the world. Ill mostly elderly, after 60 years. Men and women suffer equally often. The structure of mortality from malignant tumors share in pancreatic cancer is about 5%.
Among the risk factors, it should be noted smoking, alcohol, fatty and spicy foods, diabetes, calculous cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, and others.
There are the following diseases of the pancreas, that are related to precancerous:
- Chronic pancreatitis, particularly indurativnyy pancreatitis;
- adenoma of the pancreas;
- pancreatic cysts (postpankreaticheskie, posttravmatikie).
The most common site of cancer of the pancreascancer is head - 50-60% of the total lesion of the pancreas is observed in 20-35% of cases, the body is affected in approximately 10% of the tail - 5-8%.
Grossly pancreatic cancer looksa dense lumpy knot of various sizes, without clear boundaries with the surrounding normal tissue; tumor on the section of white or light yellow in color, with some areas of decay, thick consistency.
Treatment of pancreatic cancer
Treatment of pancreatic cancer - onethe most difficult sections of oncology. treatment difficulties, especially due to the fact that patients with pancreatic cancer - is the face of elderly and senile age with weight related diseases and common tumor process with the defeat of the adjacent organs.
There are three main methods of cancer treatmentPancreatic cancer: surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Depending on the stage of one, two or all three techniques can be applied therapy of disease.
When a small tumor, where it is possiblecomplete removal of the tumor, the aim of the operation - patient treatment. If the tumor can not be completely removed, then the purpose of surgical intervention - relief of symptoms and prevention of complications in the future. This is called palliative.
Palliative surgery for pancreatic cancer are aimed at eliminating pain, jaundice, obstruction of the duodenum.
Surgical treatment at the present stageis the leading treatment for pancreatic cancer. Operability in pancreatic cancer of from 10 to 25%. Postoperative mortality reaching 25-40%, depending on the stage of the tumor.
The life expectancy of patients with an established diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is as follows:
- without surgery - about 6 months;
- after surgery - 1.5-2 years (depending on the stage of tumor);
- after palliative surgery - 6-12 months.
Radiation and drug therapy is used to destroy or reduce the tumor. Radiotherapy 5 times a week for several weeks or months.
Radiation therapy is often used in conjunction with chemotherapy in cases when the tumor can not be removed surgically.
In the treatment of pancreatic cancer, the following types of radiotherapy:
- remote gamma-therapy;
- bremsstrahlung radiation;
- irradiation by fast electrons.
Conducted preoperative, intraoperative, andpostoperative radiation therapy. The average life expectancy of patients receiving radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer is 12-13 months, and in combination with palliative operations - about 16 months.
Intra- and mortality associated with community-acquiredcancerous intoxication, local and general reactions ray. Chemotherapy is used alone in case of impossibility of the other treatment for advanced process or in combination with other treatments. Monochemotherapy Efficiency is 15-30%, chemotherapy - 40%, while unable to achieve only partial tumor regression.
The five-year survival rate of patients after radical surgical treatment according to different authors is 8-35%.