What is the spine?
Parents often do not pay attention to your posture
child - because the kid no matter what does not complain. Rather, he may complain
on anything: headaches, fatigue, poor memory.
But few know that all these violations caused by state
Spine - is a complex structure. Vertebrae make it
basis, intervertebral cartilage, joints, ligaments and vertebral processes
device is fastened between the vertebrae, muscles provide stability
and the mobility of the spine.
Spine - is:
- rigid rod that supports the torso, head and upper limb girdle;
- reliable support of all arms of the bones and muscles, which provide any movement of the trunk and extremities;
At the same time the spine - are:
- flexible circuit, which allows the body to bend and rotate;
- elastic springs, which dampens shocks and bumps and keeps the balance of the body.
All these functions are interrelated: the spine to be mobile,
as far as possible resistant to the extent necessary, and
strong enough to withstand static and dynamic loads.
A spine is subjected to constant stress, because it involved
literally in every movement: walking and with any movement of the head
or limbs on a central axis of the body are dynamic
load. In addition, the spine undergoes almost constant
static load. To maintain a certain posture
we have not only standing, but sitting or working in the slope.
And the flexibility and rigidity provided by its spine and joints
ligamentous apparatus. Front and rear longitudinal ligament, ligaments
intervertebral joints and the joint capsule should be enough
elastic to provide the necessary amount of movement of the spine,
and strong enough to avoid damage when moving from
large amplitude. Even minor damage to the ligaments in injuries,
sudden movements, excessive load gradually over time lead
to limit the mobility of the spine.
Movement in the spine, in a complex system of joints, occur
with "bearing" - Intervertebral disc and cartilage of joints,
formed by processes of neighboring vertebrae. In cartilaginous "bearings"
moving and attached to the spine ribs and collarbone and head.
The spine works as a shock absorber system that is quenched
vertical load. Attempts aimed at the vertical axis of the body,
arise at each step or jump. Without reliable springs whole body, in
including the brain, would receive constant shaking. Leaf
function is performed by the elastic cartilage and intervertebral
the presence of physiological (natural) curves of the spine - lordosis
and kyphosis. It called lordosis curvature of the spine facing
bulge forward, and kyphosis - convexity ago. The wavy shape
spine helps to absorb vertical loads.
The muscles surrounding the spine, provide two opposing
Features - mobility and stability. Mobility in each
intervertebral joint individually small, but on the whole spine
- Quite a flexible system. Coordination of muscles provides
harmonious movement of the spine.
The main role in maintaining upright posture played back muscles,
straightening the spine, and iliopsoas muscles. For
stability of the spine is very important and unique hydraulic
support - the pressure in the chest and abdominal cavities. Abdominals
are just as important to keep the posture and protect the vertebrae from
displacements and injuries than back muscles. Rod Muscle generates curves
spine, stimulates its normal development. Well developed
muscular system is able to protect the spine from traumatic stress.
Disorders of muscle tone occur at any inadequacy
spine. The weakness of the muscular system, uneven muscle tone
inevitably associated with increased physiological bending or flattening
spine or a lateral curvature. All this leads to
Ascending the load on the intervertebral discs.
Between "just" impaired posture and spine diseases no clear boundaries. A typical example of such a transition state - instability of the spine.
Weak muscles and ligaments are not able to hold the vertebrae during movement,
languid posture leads to increased pressure on the intervertebral discs, and
while developing juvenile osteochondrosis, which is different from "ordinary" only the age of the patients.
definition "normal", However, could not be put in
quotes, and use in the most literal sense, because, according to
medical statistics, 40 to 80% of all inhabitants of the globe
osteochondrosis suffer. About one in three people over the years, LP
He complains of back pain or headache associated with osteochondrosis.
Thus, the two most common affliction related to
spine - incorrect posture and osteochondrosis - the links of one
chain. And since there is no such diseases of the spine, which is not
would affect all other organs and systems of the body, it can be
say that the spine - it really "health post".
What is the posture, and what good posture is different from the bad?
Post a short statement posture difficult. The most common and
simple definition is:
man, he takes no unnecessary muscle tension". AT
More broadly posture - this is the position of the body in a variety of
static poses, and especially the work of muscles during walking and
perform a variety of movements. But to determine what a human posture,
while dancing, running and just walk too complicated, so if you
posture assessment and diagnosis of violations of its use poses characteristics
standing. Posture is dependent primarily on the shape of the spine.
Violation of posture by themselves are not a disease, but they create
conditions not only for the disease of the spine, but also internal
authorities. Poor posture - is either an extension of the disease, or condition
predbolezni. The main danger of violations of posture is that when
it does not hurt as long as the start degenerative
changes in the intervertebral discs (osteochondrosis).
Even such a serious disease as scoliosis, the time proceeds without pain.
Poor posture reduces the margin of the body: the heart beats
tight chest, sunken chest and shoulders rotated forward do not give
easy to kill, and bulging stomach upsets normal position
abdominal organs. Reduction of physiological bends
spine (flat back), especially in combination with flat feet,
It leads to permanent brain and the increased microtraumas
fatigue, headaches, impaired memory and attention.
Most often, poor posture combined with poor muscle development and
reduced overall body tone, impaired due to improper
the position of the head of the brain blood supply, poor eyesight.
Causes and effects are difficult to divide. Myopia can
develop the habit of stooping - and, conversely, poor vision often
It causes poor posture. Habit can stoop
provoke scoliosis or kyphosis youth, especially in
presence of disorders in the metabolism of connective tissue metabolism or
violations may initially cause degeneration of intervertebral discs and bodies
vertebrae, caused by this incorrect posture is easy to take
Typically"child" diseases of the spine - scoliosis and kyphosis youth
- Considered system (ie general) diseases, which are often
accompanied by metabolic disorders. This is true, but in
very many cases, these diseases can be, if not prevent, or at least
do not let them to progress.
With proper posture all parts of the body are arranged symmetrically
with respect to the spine, pelvis turns and no vertebrae
the horizontal plane and the spine bends or oblique arrangement
pelvis - in front, the spinous processes of the vertebrae located
midline of the back. The projection of the body center of gravity, with good posture
It is within the area of a support formed by stops, around
the line connecting the front edge of the ankle.
body proportions change with age: the relative size of the head
decreases limbs - is increasing and so is therefore sustainable..
the vertical position of the body at different ages is achieved
due to the relative position of different parts of the body and the different muscle efforts,
supporting body. Correct posture preschooler, schoolboy, and
also have boys and girls at puberty varies.
Normal posture preschooler
The thorax is symmetrical, the shoulders do not protrude in front, the scapula
protrude slightly back, the abdomen protrudes, legs straight,
scheduled lumbar lordosis. The spinous processes of the vertebrae located
on the midline of the back.
Normal student posture
The shoulders are arranged horizontally, the blades are pressed against the back (not
act). The physiological curves of the spine are expressed moderately.
Bulging stomach is reduced, but the anterior surface of the abdominal wall
located in front of the chest. The right and left halves of the body
seen from the front and rear symmetrical.
Normal posture boys and girls
The spinous processes are located on the center line, legs straight,
shoulder girdle are omitted and the same level. The blades are pressed against the back.
Thorax symmetrical breasts in girls and boys have nipples
symmetrical and are flush. Triangles waist (lumens
between the arms and body) are clearly visible and are symmetrical. The abdomen is flat,
retracted relative to the chest. Physiological bends
spine are well defined, the girls emphasize the lumbar lordosis, in
boys - thoracic kyphosis.
When violations of posture torso muscles are weakened, so take
correct posture the child can only briefly. In healthy, harmonious
developed people youthful posture persists into old age.
The simplest test for correct posture - to stand with his back to the wall without
plinth. Nape blades, buttocks, calves and heels should
touch the wall. The distance between the wall and the body in the vicinity of the cervical and
lumbar lordosis - about 2-3 finger.
A small body asymmetry have everyone, but if incorrect posture
markedly pronounced, and even more so if they progress, it's time to go
doctor. Better yet, do not correct your posture and make efforts for it