Question №1. What is this disease?
- An acute infectious disease that occurs in some cases
without visible symptoms, other leads to deadly
paralysis. After the widespread introduction of vaccination polio almost
It disappeared from the developed countries.
polio outbreaks still occur, usually in those layers of the population,
which did not pass immunization. Most often Poliomyelitis
summer and autumn. Previously from the disease mostly affects children,
Now age of onset is usually more than 15 years. Among cases
children paralytic form of polio is prevalent in boys.
It depends on which organs are affected and the system. If the center
the nervous system is intact, a favorable prognosis. However, when
lesions of the brain and spinal cord can lead to infection
paralysis and death of the patients. The average mortality rate of 5 to 10%.
Question №2. What causes polio development?
Infection - the three poliovirus serotypes, each of which
can cause polio. These poliovirus spread
everywhere and are passed from person to person. Habitat
poliovirus - nasopharyngeal mucous discharge and feces. incubatory
period can last anywhere from 5 to 35 days.
Question №3. What are the symptoms?
Three main forms of infection. Inapparent (subclinical) polio
observed in 95% of cases. The share of abortion (easy flowing)
Polio is necessary from 4 to 8% of all cases. It is characterized by
slight fever, malaise, headaches,
sore throat, pharyngitis and vomiting. Usually within 72 h comes
recovery. Most often inapparent and abortive polio
third type of infection affects the brain and spinal cord and
divided into non-paralytic and paralytic poliomyelitis.
Non-paralytic polio is a moderate increase in temperature,
headaches, vomiting, fatigue, irritability and pain in the area
neck, back, arms, legs and abdomen. There are also muscle aches and
twitch extensor muscles of the neck and back. Symptoms usually disappear
a week later; about 2 weeks is maintained irritability.
Polio usually develops within 5-7 days after the increase
temperature. Symptoms are similar to the symptoms of non-paralytic
polio. Characteristic features: asymmetrical weakness of various
muscles, loss of superficial and deep reflexes, spontaneous
resulting discomfort of numbness, tingling, burning,
increased sensitivity to touch, urinary retention, constipation and
bloating. The degree of paralysis depends on defeat
spinal cord (suffer from cervical, thoracic and lumbar).
rarer bulbar polio. This is the most severe form
disease that affects motor nucleus bulbar
cranial nerves. Symptoms: muscle weakness, controlled cranial
nerves; develops inflammation of the brain; observed speech disorders ,,
chewing, swallowing; the opposite occurs the movement of food through the nose; dyspnea,
rhythm disturbance, the frequency and depth of breathing; possible respiratory arrest,
pulmonary edema and shock leading to death of the patient.
the risk of complications from polio are: high blood
pressure, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, atelectasis,
pneumonia, myocarditis, pulmonary heart, skeletal deformities and
soft tissue, paralytic ileus. Many
polio complications develop due to prolonged immobility
and poor muscle function, providing a breath.
Question №4. As polio diagnosed?
diagnosis is necessary in the early stages of the disease highlight
poliovirus from nasopharyngeal secretions, or cranial fluid
stool. It is necessary to exclude other viral infections.
Question №5. How is it treated?
supports. Appointed painkillers. When polio
not recommended to use morphine, because it increases
the risk of respiratory depression. Applying moist heat can reduce
muscle cramps and pain.
mode is only required at the time of pronounced symptoms. reconstructive
post-paralytic poliomyelitis can be very long.
At this time, using physiotherapy, orthopedic devices,
corrective shoes and, in some cases, orthopedic surgery.