5 questions about polio

Content

  • Question №1
  • Question №2
  • Question №3
  • Question №4
  • Question №5



  • Question №1. What is this disease?

    Polio
    - An acute infectious disease that occurs in some cases
    without visible symptoms, other leads to deadly
    paralysis. After the widespread introduction of vaccination polio almost
    It disappeared from the developed countries.

    Small
    polio outbreaks still occur, usually in those layers of the population,
    which did not pass immunization. Most often Poliomyelitis
    summer and autumn. Previously from the disease mostly affects children,
    Now age of onset is usually more than 15 years. Among cases
    children paralytic form of polio is prevalent in boys.

    Forecast
    It depends on which organs are affected and the system. If the center
    the nervous system is intact, a favorable prognosis. However, when
    lesions of the brain and spinal cord can lead to infection
    paralysis and death of the patients. The average mortality rate of 5 to 10%.



    Question №2. What causes polio development?

    Pathogens
    Infection - the three poliovirus serotypes, each of which
    can cause polio. These poliovirus spread
    everywhere and are passed from person to person. Habitat
    poliovirus - nasopharyngeal mucous discharge and feces. incubatory
    period can last anywhere from 5 to 35 days.



    Question №3. What are the symptoms?

    Distinguish
    Three main forms of infection. Inapparent (subclinical) polio
    observed in 95% of cases. The share of abortion (easy flowing)
    Polio is necessary from 4 to 8% of all cases. It is characterized by
    slight fever, malaise, headaches,
    sore throat, pharyngitis and vomiting. Usually within 72 h comes
    recovery. Most often inapparent and abortive polio
    unrecognized.

    5 questions about poliobut
    third type of infection affects the brain and spinal cord and
    divided into non-paralytic and paralytic poliomyelitis.
    Non-paralytic polio is a moderate increase in temperature,
    headaches, vomiting, fatigue, irritability and pain in the area
    neck, back, arms, legs and abdomen. There are also muscle aches and
    twitch extensor muscles of the neck and back. Symptoms usually disappear
    a week later; about 2 weeks is maintained irritability.

    Paralytic
    Polio usually develops within 5-7 days after the increase
    temperature. Symptoms are similar to the symptoms of non-paralytic
    polio. Characteristic features: asymmetrical weakness of various
    muscles, loss of superficial and deep reflexes, spontaneous
    resulting discomfort of numbness, tingling, burning,
    increased sensitivity to touch, urinary retention, constipation and
    bloating. The degree of paralysis depends on defeat
    spinal cord (suffer from cervical, thoracic and lumbar).

    Much
    rarer bulbar polio. This is the most severe form
    disease that affects motor nucleus bulbar
    cranial nerves. Symptoms: muscle weakness, controlled cranial
    nerves; develops inflammation of the brain; observed speech disorders ,,
    chewing, swallowing; the opposite occurs the movement of food through the nose; dyspnea,
    rhythm disturbance, the frequency and depth of breathing; possible respiratory arrest,
    pulmonary edema and shock leading to death of the patient.

    special
    the risk of complications from polio are: high blood
    pressure, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, atelectasis,
    pneumonia, myocarditis, pulmonary heart, skeletal deformities and
    soft tissue, paralytic ileus. Many
    polio complications develop due to prolonged immobility
    and poor muscle function, providing a breath.



    Question №4. As polio diagnosed?

    For
    diagnosis is necessary in the early stages of the disease highlight
    poliovirus from nasopharyngeal secretions, or cranial fluid
    stool. It is necessary to exclude other viral infections.



    Question №5. How is it treated?

    Treatment
    supports. Appointed painkillers. When polio
    not recommended to use morphine, because it increases
    the risk of respiratory depression. Applying moist heat can reduce
    muscle cramps and pain.

    Bed
    mode is only required at the time of pronounced symptoms. reconstructive
    post-paralytic poliomyelitis can be very long.
    At this time, using physiotherapy, orthopedic devices,
    corrective shoes and, in some cases, orthopedic surgery.

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