The term "autism" was first introduced by E. Bleier in 1920 as a symptom of severe violations of the interaction with the reality of adult patients with schizophrenia. Infantile Autism was described by Leo Kanner (1943 Kanner's syndrome), and then Hans Asperger (1949).
Then one of the definitions of autism sounded like"Disunity person with the outside world." This disease affects not only mental functions (speech, intelligence, thinking), but also affects the perception of the child an integral picture of the world. The main problem lies in the lack of understanding of autism, non-perception of human events happening around.
It is proved that the majority of cases of autismgenetically determined, but the exact mechanisms of inheritance hitherto unknown. The only thing that could be argued - likely inherited not autism itself, but a predisposition to it.
They are implemented or not - depends largelyby external circumstances, which most are not the cause but the terms of the development of autism. Often the appearance of autism symptoms precede birth injuries and other disorders of pregnancy and childbirth, as well as various factors acting after birth.
In recent years, autism is given specialAttention. This is due to the fact that, according to some studies, the number of people with autism, it is growing every year. However, it is unclear whether this is due to some external factors or simply is expanding the boundaries of the concept of "autistic".
Children with autism, since the first months of life,characterized by some peculiarities of development. First of all, such a child avoids all kinds of interaction with adults: he is not pressed against the mother when she picks him up, does not stretch the hand and pulled her, as does a healthy baby, avoid direct eye contact.
He often prevails peripheral vision(Corner of my eye looks); it may also not respond to sounds in his own name, which often leads one to suspect these children have hearing loss, which in reality is not.
A characteristic feature of mental development whenAutism is inconsistency, ambiguity of its manifestations. Autistic child can be highly intelligent and mentally retarded, it can be gifted in some area (music, mathematics), but it does not have a simple domestic and social skills. The same child in different situations can be awkward and can demonstrate remarkable agility.
The mental factor of autistic children oftenmore than 70 points on a scale stoballnoy. These children display the ability - sometimes brilliant - for drawing, music, design. They are called "islands of knowledge", and those who have them, called "scientists autistic." At the same time other areas of life are not affected at all and are not interested in the child.
Autistic child very own connectedexisting stereotypes. All his inner world squeezed into the rigid framework, beyond which is a tragedy for him. This is primarily due to the so-called neophobia - fear of anything new.
However, phobias such children can develop toanything. In particular, autistic children suffer from a phobia touch - they are afraid of household electrical appliances, publishing sharp sounds, water sound, dark or bright light, closed the door, dress with a high collar, etc.
When autistic child is particularly bad, he canshow aggression and self-injurious behavior. The explosion of destructive force of desperation usually directed against intervention in his life and attempts to change the stereotypes. Selectivity in the contacts and the lack of visible affection even to close people stems from the fear of the whole system, and because of this - prohibitions and self-restraint.
It is different rigidities, "Made""Mechanistic", "parrot". Often the impression stamping. One of the striking characteristics of speech autistic child - eholalirovanie, repetition - often delayed - heard anywhere phrases out of touch with the real situation.
Trouble families with an autistic child in the first place inthat awareness of the problem often occurs suddenly. The difficulty of establishing contact and interaction are balanced in the eyes of parents soothing experiences that cause a serious, intelligent eyes of the child, his special abilities.
Therefore, at the time of diagnosis, sometimes familyexperiencing severe stress: three, four, sometimes even five parents report that their child, who is still considered healthy and gifted, in fact, "learning disabilities." Often, they immediately offered to issue a disability or place it in a special boarding school. Status for family stress, which continues to "fight" for their child, from that moment often becomes chronic.
The biggest problems fall on the share of mothersautistic child, because from its very birth, she does not get positive emotions, just the joy of communion with more than cover all the hardships and fatigue associated with daily cares and anxieties.
The child is not smiling at her, not looking into the eyes, do notHe loves to be in his arms; sometimes he even distinguishes it from other people, does not give a visible preference in contact. It is therefore clear manifestation of her depression, irritability, emotional exhaustion.
Fathers tend to avoid the daily stress,associated with raising an autistic child, spending more time at work. Nevertheless, they too are experiencing feelings of guilt, frustration, but not talk about it so clearly as his mother.
Characteristically, the need for communication in autisticchildren do not initially broken. Such a child can be deeply attached to a loved one, and the human person as significant for him, as for any other, only eye contact, he can withstand only a very short time. Thus, the autistic child rather can not, what does not want to communicate with other people.
In addition, fathers are concerned about weightstress felt by their wives, to their special material burdens borne by the care for the "difficult" child, which are felt more acutely because they promise to be long-lasting, virtually lifelong.
In special situations grow brothers and sisters ofchildren: psychological and domestic terms they, too, are experiencing some difficulties, and the parents in such a situation often forced to sacrifice their interests.
If you notice any of the above signs inthe behavior of your child, consult a child psychiatrist. The earlier in life you start the correction of an autistic child, the greater the chance to adapt it to a normal life.
In the diagnosis of autism main criterionIt is that the disease never develops in healthy Rebeck after 5 years. Thus, if deviations are found listed in adulthood, should first consider schizophrenia, autism instead.
Furthermore, some are similar to the symptoms of autismmanifestations of mental retardation, speech disorders, congenital deafness and regressive psychosis. Therefore, only an experienced specialist can determine whether your child actually autistic.
Conventional therapy involves both appropriatediet and the use of sedatives and other drugs to improve the overall condition of the child. In addition, now there are plenty of techniques and developments aimed at the treatment or correction of autism. For example, communication therapy helps the child develop independence, self-reliance and social integration skills. It is also important to promote the development of social skills through body language and various other methods (non-verbal communication).
Audio-vocal training and audio learningfocused on the subsequent adaptation of an autistic child as well as the treatment of the conflict, which is the main method of forcible hug «forceal holding», or holding therapy. This method is also called "accelerated support" and was first proposed by M. Welch in 1983.
It consists in the attempt to force, almostviolent formation of physical connection between mother and child, as it was the lack of communication is often considered a major violation in autism. In addition, the necessary permanent employment specialist physical therapy in order to correct the child has learned to control the body.
Parents need to understand what happens to thembaby, and if possible establish emotional contact with them, to feel their strength, learn to make a difference, changing it for the better. In addition, families with autistic children is useful to communicate with each other. They not only understand each other, but each of them has its own unique experience of the experience of crises, overcoming difficulties and achieving success, the development of specific methods of solving the many everyday problems.