The term "enterovirus" is used as a generalizingname for a large number of viruses which proliferate in the gastrointestinal tract, why they are called "enteric virus". So, to the number of intestinal viruses concerns and one of the biggest viral families - picornavirus (Picornaviridae), whose name comes from the Italian «pico» - small (it is one of the smallest viruses - the size of about 30 nm) and rna (ribonucleic acid RNA - viruses hereditary material). This family of viruses includes five genera rhinoviruses (rhinovirus) - causative agents of the common cold; kardiovirusy (cardiovirus) - encephalomyocarditis pathogens; aphthovirus (apthovirus) - foot and mouth disease pathogens; hepatovirus (hepatovirus) - causative agents of hepatitis A and, in fact, enteroviruses (enterovirus). Thus enteroviruses (enterovirus) - is not only an umbrella term, but also a very specific kind of an extensive family of enteric viruses. Here and below, using the term "enteroviruses", we will keep in mind it is a particular kind of virus, which will be discussed.
Enteroviruses can cause a person a number of diseases, the general term for enterovirus infections.
Most susceptible to enterovirus infection children.
The pathogen enters the body through mucousupper respiratory tract or digestive tract. In place of introduction of the virus accumulates and begins to multiply. As a rule (especially for adults), infection is fairly easy and asymptomatic or accompanied by symptoms of lung ailments - fever, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, photophobia (intolerance to bright light), occasionally vomiting may occur. However, the penetration of the blood (called "viremia"), enteroviruses spread throughout the body and thus can affect various organs, causing serious illness.
Carriers and distribution
Enteroviruses are widespread innature and avoid them is practically impossible. In this case it is not necessary that all the people who entered into the body of viruses, such as sick. Quite the contrary - they may become virus carriers themselves without experiencing any signs of illness, or transferring it quickly and in an easy manner. Enteroviruses which infect man are found in animals not and vice versa, enterovirus domestic or wild animals is not transmitted to humans.
Therefore, enterovirus infection may eitherindirectly - by the fecal-oral route (ie through contaminated food and water) or household by direct contact with virunositelem or through contamination of household items. Enough is important and air-drop mechanism of transmission of enteroviruses (after all, they are fairly close relatives causative viral colds).
The risk to humans
As already mentioned, enteroviruses are widelycommon and the chance to "meet" with them is very large. The probability of enterovirus infections disease is inversely proportional to the age of the person. The most susceptible to these infections children first year of life. Chances of disease and for children up to 10 years. In adults, the people likely to develop enterovirus diseases is low.
Fortunately, most enteroviral infectionsIt flows easily and does not lead to serious consequences (no more than the common cold). Moreover, not every case the infection leads to illness.
Enteroviral infections occur throughout the year, but have a peak incidence in the period from June to October (for countries with temperate climates).
Methods of dealing with these viruses is essentially one - hygiene compliance ( "Wash your hands before eating!").
Diarrhea with enterovirus infection
Start acute diseases, diarrhea is preceded bynausea and, in severe cases - vomiting. Obscheinfektsionnye symptoms (headache, fever, muscle aches) expressed mild pain in the abdomen for viral enteritis are not typical. First chair has a pasty fecal character, but then it becomes more liquid and watery. A so because the swelling and inflammation of the small intestine caused by the virus cause disturbances secretion and reabsorption of water, rich in sodium and potassium salts. The fluid lost with diarrhea, low in protein, but many of these salts. The fluid loss can be up to 1 liter per hour.
The colon does not suffer from viral diarrhea,so the chair is not identified leukocytes. The main reason for requiring immediate treatment, is threatening loss of fluids and salts. Viral diarrhea lasts 1-3 days in adults, in children 2 times longer, so you need to immediately begin the replacement of lost fluid.
Treatment of enterovirus infection
Treatment is aimed at addressing the underlyingsymptoms and complaints (diarrhea, vomiting, fever, dehydration). Most of these patients are treated at home, as infectiousness is not very high. The disease is rarely fatal and severe complications.
Diet plays a very important role. Diet:
- From food exclude substances enhancing peristalsis
- Excluded di - and monosaccharides (milk). Showing dairy products, as there is intestinal dysbiosis.
- Food should have a gentle mechanical properties (excluding roughage) as in the intestine is inflamed.
- Limit fats, as increased intake of fat will lead to increased fermentation processes, putrid decay, strengthen intoxication and diarrhea.
- When putrefaction has better baked apples, they better absorb harmful substances (are enterosorbent).
Water and electrolyte disturbances can lead todehydration. To combat this, use a mixture of oral (drinking water) salt solutions (tsitroglyukosoran), which apply regardless of the causative agent of diarrheal diseases. Tsitroglyukosoran comprises sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium citrate and 20 g of glucose. This set is very effective. The powder is diluted in 1 liter of drinking water. Creates a concentration of salts which are usually lost, because at intestinal infections present isotonic dehydration. Suction is provided in full, as a 2% glucose solution increases the absorption.
Mild dehydration (fluid loss is notless than 3%) - clinically thirst. Prevention is that after each defecation adult to drink 200 ml of this solution and a child aged 2 - 50-100 ml depending on body weight (another scheme - to 50 ml per 1 kg of body weight per hour treatments 4, further maintenance treatment.
Severe dehydration (obezvozhivnie) clinicallymanifested convulsions, shortness of breath, palpitations, pressure reduction, almost state of shock. fluid loss is 110-120 ml per kg body weight. Urgent recovery losses, since fluid loss vosploneniya intravenous (rehydration) (for 4 hours), then move to oral (drinking) rehydration (replenishment fluid volume).