For the first time the causative agent was identified in smearsof the rotor and throat patients in 1883 by the German scientist Edwin Klebs. Search for causes diphtheria engaged Gaston Ramon, in 1923 he discovered an antitoxin and proposed to use it to immunize the population. Significant contribution to the study of the disease and its prevention have Russian scientists, they have developed many of the questions of pathogenesis, specific treatment, forms of complications after diphtheria, classification of clinical forms of the disease, have established laws occurrence frequency of outbreaks, depending on the individual and the influence of age and season on the course disease.
Throughout the history of human developmentdoctors and scientists have been trying to establish the cause of diphtheria as one of the most insidious and dangerous diseases of adults and children. The main source of infection is considered to be a patient or bacillicarriers no signs of illness, it is a healthy appearance, but releasing diphtheria bacilli, often it is, of course, children.
Corynebacterium affects the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx,pharynx, throat, respiratory tract - the trachea and larynx. Microbe survives on the mucosa, as a result of its development and reproduction, he release a toxin, which can easily spread throughout the body lymph and blood. Exotoxin on-site implementation Loeffler bacillus causes inflammation of the epithelium with the formation of a gray-white coating, characterized by a dense cohesion with the surrounding tissues. Diphtheria toxin affects many organs and thereby causes severe complications involved in the process of the kidneys, heart, respiratory and nervous systems.
It is easier to prevent than to cure - this wisdomgood for all time to think about the fate of children of parents, adults who are not accustomed to let the disease take its course, and for those who understand that the principles of prevention is vaccination and re-vaccination of diphtheria. Depending on the location of introduction and breeding corynebacteria, and their name comes from the Latin word «coryne», which means mace, determine the form of the disease: the oropharynx, nasal passages, larynx, vulva, eyes, skin. There are even combined shape when affected several organs simultaneously.
The major and quite effective way to treat andSalvation from the appearance of possible complications after the known forms of diphtheria is the use of diphtheria serum (PDS), which is able to neutralize the toxin. And it is very important factor is time: the earlier introduced the PDS, the more effective the treatment, which includes antibacterial agents, and drugs, relieving symptoms of intoxication.
After diseases and revaccination,immunity requires reinforcement every 10 years, except for persons under the age of 66 years, otherwise the disease sometimes returns. The secondary manifestation of disease is much easier, but it can be avoided to prevent the rejection of vaccinations against diphtheria, starting from an early age. The course of the disease in unvaccinated children and adults often heavy, and the importance of vaccination against diphtheria can not be overestimated. Keep in mind that only 5% of vaccinated can get sick again. However, today there are cases when parents refuse immunization, naively believing that the epidemic had passed, and the baby has not threatened. The negative and unhelpful role in the dense ignorance of the media played, telling all sorts of stories about what troubles brings vaccination and its consequences, thus causing parents to refuse an important calendar vaccinations against diphtheria during the next visit to the regional children's clinic.
Immunization with diphtheria toxoid procedureharmless and not at all complicated. Toxoid is part of the polio vaccine DTP, DT, ADSm very reliably prevents the occurrence of the disease. A clear and timely planned vaccination and re-vaccination for diphtheria, the implementation of all planned activities - the key to good health of your child, and therefore your well-being.