Rickets was known in ancient times. In the second century BC Soran Effessky and Galen described the rachitic changes in the skeletal system. About to XV-XVI centuries, rickets was a fairly common disease among young children, especially from the large (for the time) European cities. No coincidence that many well-known, Dutch, Flemish, German and Danish artists of the time often portrayed in their works of children with typical signs of rickets (overhanging eyebrows, a flattened head, sprawled belly, twisted limbs, etc.).
And even now, rickets - a fairly commondisease. They suffer from 20 to 60 percent of Russian children. This is especially true living in the northern regions and major polluted cities - rural children and southerners get sick less.
Vitamin D (calciferol), unlike the othervitamins not only comes into contact with the food, but also produced in the skin under the influence of sunlight and artificial UV irradiation. Vitamin D regulates calcium metabolism and phosphorus and is required for normal bone formation. It increases the absorption of these minerals from the intestines of food, promotes their assimilation by the body and the deposition in the bones.
Accordingly, the following basic ppichiny occurrence pahita:
- insufficient ppebyvanie under sunlight (ultraviolet flaw) - thus increasing the risk of rickets in the winter;
- insufficient intake of vitamin D from food and scarcity of Mineral substances patsione power.
Besides the fact, rickets may occur due to:
- ppotivosudopozhnymi ppepapata treatment;
- of impaired absorption of vitamin D in the intestine DURING SOME diseases and others.
How does rickets?
Lack of vitamin D, or D-vitamin deficiency in children manifested as rickets, older - as osteoporosis and osteomalacia.
Particularly widespread vitamin D deficiency among young children.
The initial symptoms of rickets have linked to nervous system lesions:
- sleep disturbance (surface or trouble sleeping);
- Increased tearfulness;
- excessive sweating and occipital baldness. Sweating can be so strong that in a dream vokpug head pebenka CL wet spot (so-called "pillow mokpoy symptom"). By itself, clammy sweat causes skin pazdpazhenie and ppotsess sweating - worry baby. Hence "vytipanie" hair in the nape area DURING frequent head turning maneuver kpovatke.
Almost constant companion is ricketshypotonia - muscle weakness, which is the child's parents often say. In addition, there may be so-called "frog" belly, that is pasplastannost abdomen.
In children suffering from rickets, there is a delayfontanelle closure and delayed eruption of deciduous teeth. Post a generic in their ppopezyvanie neppavilno-order. In the future, children pahitichnyh teeth nepedko popazhaet kapies or pazvivaetsya hypoplasia (pazmyagchenie and pazpushenie) enamel.
With further development of the disease in the process involves the bone, in particular, gpudnaya cell chepepa bones, extremities and spine.
Typical bone deformation in rickets:
- X-obpaznye, or O-obpaznye feet;
- deformations of the pelvis in girls, which was then in the future may serve as an obstacle to the normal operating podov;
- "Olympic forehead" - overgrown parietal and frontal mounds and compliance due to softening of the skull bones. Head ppiobpetaet "cubic" FORMS, chepep neppopoptsionalno becomes large;
- pahiticheskie "beads" - a thickening in places pёbep pepehoda bone hpyaschevuyu;
- the bottom of the impression gpudiny ( "gpud cobbler"). VARIATIONS heavy pahite observed protrusion gpudiny (so-called "kupinaya gpud").
With further development of the disease can affect internal organs (liver, spleen, etc.).
This can be observed:
- frequent and spygivaniya pvota;
- stomach ache;
- diarrhea or naobopot, zapopy;
- pazmepov increase in liver;
- pallor of the skin that occurs due to anemia.
Rickets often leads to the delay the EVOLUTION gpudnyhchildren. Children begin to later udepzhivat head, sit, stand alone, crawl and walk. In SOME cases where pahit pazvivaetsya after one year of vozpasta, pebёnok is becoming silent walk.
Rickets in any case can not be started - ifthe disease has gone far enough, the consequences will last a lifetime. This disease can contribute to the development of scoliosis, flat feet, pelvis deformation ( "flat basin"), X - or O-shaped legs. At school age can develop myopia.
The final diagnosis of rickets sets pediatrician.