The ability for binocular vision, ie to the vision with two eyes,
he formed gradually and lasts up to four to six years. So
as it occurs gradually, it can be easily broken. All
newborns have about three diopters hyperopia. This focus
falls not on the retina, and is after her. As the child grows
increases in size and the eyeball, and optical focus
moves on the retina. Some children, for various reasons,
have farsightedness above three diopters. To clearly see objects,
they have to strain your eyes. This stress is often
a basic prerequisite to the emergence of pathologies.
Most often, parents are turning to a pediatric ophthalmologist, noting that
crumbs eyes look "wrong", which is associated with abnormalities
oculomotor apparatus. Indeed, strabismus and nystagmus
associated with impaired eye movements, although the problem is much deeper
and it affects many body functions, including the work of departments
brain responsible for vision.
What is strabismus
Strabismus - is not only a problem of appearance, when
This disrupted in virtually all parts of the visual system.
Most often it occurs in children with hyperopia and
astigmatism, at least - in congenital and acquired early myopia.
Squint occurs most frequently between the ages of one to three years.
Exotropia is rarer than converging. at
squint to constantly squinting eyes occurs gradually decrease
visual acuity, that is, developing amblyopia. This complication is associated with
what the visual system in order to avoid chaos, blocked transmission
in the image of an object the brain, which is seen squinting eye.
Such a condition leads to an even greater deviation of the eyes,
It starts a vicious circle.
Any suspicion of deviation from the norm should alert parents and
encourage children to an early visit to the ophthalmologist. loss process
view depends on the age of the pathology. If this
occurred in early childhood, in the first year of life, reduced visual
view is very, very fast.
An experienced specialist will identify the presence or absence of a child
long-sightedness (myopia), the severity and nature of the view angle
strabismus. If necessary, referral to other doctors,
for example, to a neurologist.
complex can be initiated only after a careful examination
treatment of strabismus. If you have farsightedness or nearsightedness, in
indications, the child points are assigned. Sometimes they are completely correct
strabismus. However, even under such circumstances one wearing glasses
enough. Because the disease is systemic, and the approach to treatment
It should be the same. By the conservative part of the treatment methods include,
to improve visual acuity. It is important to restore
"Bridges" between the eyes, to teach the child to combine images
right and left eyes in a single image.
During treatment at a certain stage, when indicated, carried out
surgery on the eye muscles. The operation is aimed at
restoring the right balance between the muscles, resulting in
movement of the eyeballs.
There are ways of surgical treatment of strabismus, which allow
fix not only its permanent large, but also successfully treated
non-permanent deviation, as well as strabismus with small angle values
eye abnormalities. The essence of such specific operations on
extraocular muscles, which are held at the micron level,
It is to change the point of force application - usually the arm,
familiar to all of the school curriculum.
After the operation is mandatory require further
rehabilitation measures to help bring back to normal
stereoscopic vision and localization (exact definition) objects in
space - all step by step. Unfortunately, in many cases
applied methods of treatment of strabismus are fragmented.
Most of the entire complex, requiring a systematic approach, and choose
treat one thing, such as amblyopia. Sometimes in a hurry with the operational
intervention. Never treated "pieces" will not be successful!
The cause of strabismus at an early age can be:
- genetic predisposition, when the disease is at immediate family (parents, uncles, aunts);
- the presence of a defect of the optical (defocus)
most often it is the case with long-sightedness in children. It should also be taken into account,
that, as a rule, hyperopia combined with convergent strabismus,
and myopia - to divergent;
- Various intoxication (poisoning) of the fetus during pregnancy;
- severe infectious diseases;
- neurological disease (hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure);
- the impetus for the emergence of strabismus in the background can serve as prerequisites for high temperature, physical or mental trauma.
Treatment of strabismus
I would like to emphasize
the fallacy of both early strabismus surgery and unfounded
prolonged conservative treatment. Location Operation of the treatment
strabismus should be predetermined not so much the age of the patient,
how kind of strabismus and the nature of functional disorders
visual system. It is important to understand that the operation does not replace
therapeutic methods, and it solves a specific problem that
can not be solved conservatively.
Strabismus occurs in 3% of children, including all kinds of diseases. If
to address the issue seriously, the recovery occurs in 97% of cases.
Rehabilitation of strabismus involves achieving three main
functional results: high acuity, symmetric
the provisions of the eyes and stereoscopic visual perception.
There is another extreme - many doctors still stubbornly
It asserts that up to 6 years old do not need to do anything and everything goes by itself. it
the greatest error - if no action is taken so long,
complications that can receive and then require more treatment
time and effort, and sometimes occurred in the "waiting" period changes have already
irreversible. Treatment should be started as early as possible.
Sometimes Strabismus is imaginary: from the wide bridge of the nose
newborn parents podo-
zrevayut presence of this defect, and it really is not - it
just an illusion. Here it is in this case all really
age passes and fix not need anything, but to determine the imaginary
is strabismus or real, can only be a doctor.
What is nystagmus
Another pathology of oculomotor system in children is
nystagmus. If this diagnosis is not established at all eyes and the eyes
constantly make spontaneous chaotic movements of different
amplitude, due to which the image is always out of focus on the retina.
Nystagmus - severe pathology of the visual system associated with
disorders of the central nervous system, disorders and fundus
the optic nerve. Congenital nystagmus occurs in children enough
Among the reasons for its occurrence can be called and birth injuries, and
violations of fetal development. Also can cause nystagmus
albinism - a hereditary disease characterized by a decrease or
complete lack of pigmentation of the skin, hair, eyes (eyes, skin
albinism) or just the eye (ocular albinism). Children with albinism
They have very white skin; eyebrows, eyelashes and hair are completely devoid of
pigment. Due to lack of pigment in the retina function violated
retinal nerve cells, other than that in children with the disease
disorders are initially in the central region of the retina, and
in the optic nerve. Consequently there nystagmus.
Nystagmus in almost all cases is combined with both organic
(Irreversible) changes in the visual system (partial atrophy
optic nerve degenerative changes in the fundus), and with
functional (reversible) disorders. Recent while nystagmus
develop on the background of comorbidity, especially
farsightedness, astigmatism, myopia and strabismus. Wherein
disease in the fundus is formed blurred smudged. TO
this is added the constant movement of the eyeballs and the displacement
Images. As a result of the higher parts of the central nervous system
transmitted picture is not clear, so the visual cells of the cerebral cortex
insufficiently developed brain and visual acuity reduced.
If you suspect that a child of this disease should be immediately show
ophthalmologist and neurologist. It is necessary to conduct a survey
brain on MRI. This will reveal
possible organic disorders. Many clinics are not taken for medical treatment,
Considering this pathology hopeless, but to fight for the vision you need in any
case. With an integrated approach can very good results,
when used as therapeutic and surgical methods.
Hardware Conservative treatment of children with nystagmus directed to
improvement in visual acuity, decrease in blood circulation in the eye,
increased activity of metabolic processes in the visual cells.
Treatment should be carried out together with the neurologist, courses on
two or three weeks several times a year. When nystagmus apply
special operations on the eye muscles, to reduce the
frequency and amplitude of oscillatory motion. Treatment enough
long, the little patient should be kept under constant
medical observation. The aim is to improve the view to
child can learn in a regular school, among peers to adapt.
Pathology of the oculomotor apparatus having a serious impact on
the formation of the entire visual system of the child. Therefore, treatment should be
be initiated as early as possible to prevent the development of complications
and accelerate the functional rehabilitation of the child. Since visual
toddler system is in constant development in young children
age all applicable methods are more effective. School child
It should be as rehabilitated. In older children
it takes much more time to improve visual function and
number of cases is not always possible to achieve a full recovery.
And, of course, very good, when the child involved experienced
experts, but parents in any case can not be lazy. must
address the problem of constantly until full recovery and not to cast
all, as soon as there were good cosmetic results. In such
the case of interrupted treatment will do no good, it will not be solved until the end
vision problems and everything will return "to normal".
It should be remembered that the correct diagnosis and adequate
prompt treatment is the key to the full rehabilitation of small
patient, healthy shine and joy in his eyes.