Strabismus and nystagmus


  • What is strabismus
  • Treatment of strabismus
  • What is nystagmus
  • nystagmus Treatment

  • At birth, the child is still not able to watch the "two eyes".
    The ability for binocular vision, ie to the vision with two eyes,
    he formed gradually and lasts up to four to six years. So
    as it occurs gradually, it can be easily broken. All
    newborns have about three diopters hyperopia. This focus
    falls not on the retina, and is after her. As the child grows
    increases in size and the eyeball, and optical focus
    moves on the retina. Some children, for various reasons,
    have farsightedness above three diopters. To clearly see objects,
    they have to strain your eyes. This stress is often
    a basic prerequisite to the emergence of pathologies.

    Most often, parents are turning to a pediatric ophthalmologist, noting that
    crumbs eyes look "wrong", which is associated with abnormalities
    oculomotor apparatus. Indeed, strabismus and nystagmus
    associated with impaired eye movements, although the problem is much deeper
    and it affects many body functions, including the work of departments
    brain responsible for vision.

    What is strabismus

    Strabismus - is not only a problem of appearance, when
    This disrupted in virtually all parts of the visual system.
    Most often it occurs in children with hyperopia and
    astigmatism, at least - in congenital and acquired early myopia.

    Squint occurs most frequently between the ages of one to three years.
    Exotropia is rarer than converging. at
    squint to constantly squinting eyes occurs gradually decrease
    visual acuity, that is, developing amblyopia. This complication is associated with
    what the visual system in order to avoid chaos, blocked transmission
    in the image of an object the brain, which is seen squinting eye.
    Such a condition leads to an even greater deviation of the eyes,
    It starts a vicious circle.

    Any suspicion of deviation from the norm should alert parents and
    encourage children to an early visit to the ophthalmologist. loss process
    view depends on the age of the pathology. If this
    occurred in early childhood, in the first year of life, reduced visual
    view is very, very fast.

    An experienced specialist will identify the presence or absence of a child
    long-sightedness (myopia), the severity and nature of the view angle
    strabismus. If necessary, referral to other doctors,
    for example, to a neurologist.

    Strabismus and nystagmus
    complex can be initiated only after a careful examination
    treatment of strabismus. If you have farsightedness or nearsightedness, in
    indications, the child points are assigned. Sometimes they are completely correct
    strabismus. However, even under such circumstances one wearing glasses
    enough. Because the disease is systemic, and the approach to treatment
    It should be the same. By the conservative part of the treatment methods include,
    to improve visual acuity. It is important to restore
    "Bridges" between the eyes, to teach the child to combine images
    right and left eyes in a single image.

    During treatment at a certain stage, when indicated, carried out
    surgery on the eye muscles. The operation is aimed at
    restoring the right balance between the muscles, resulting in
    movement of the eyeballs.

    There are ways of surgical treatment of strabismus, which allow
    fix not only its permanent large, but also successfully treated
    non-permanent deviation, as well as strabismus with small angle values
    eye abnormalities. The essence of such specific operations on
    extraocular muscles, which are held at the micron level,
    It is to change the point of force application - usually the arm,
    familiar to all of the school curriculum.

    After the operation is mandatory require further
    rehabilitation measures to help bring back to normal
    stereoscopic vision and localization (exact definition) objects in
    space - all step by step. Unfortunately, in many cases
    applied methods of treatment of strabismus are fragmented.
    Most of the entire complex, requiring a systematic approach, and choose
    treat one thing, such as amblyopia. Sometimes in a hurry with the operational
    intervention. Never treated "pieces" will not be successful!

    The cause of strabismus at an early age can be:

    • genetic predisposition, when the disease is at immediate family (parents, uncles, aunts);
    • the presence of a defect of the optical (defocus)
      most often it is the case with long-sightedness in children. It should also be taken into account,
      that, as a rule, hyperopia combined with convergent strabismus,
      and myopia - to divergent;
    • Various intoxication (poisoning) of the fetus during pregnancy;
    • severe infectious diseases;
    • neurological disease (hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure);
    • the impetus for the emergence of strabismus in the background can serve as prerequisites for high temperature, physical or mental trauma.

    Treatment of strabismus

    I would like to emphasize
    the fallacy of both early strabismus surgery and unfounded
    prolonged conservative treatment. Location Operation of the treatment
    strabismus should be predetermined not so much the age of the patient,
    how kind of strabismus and the nature of functional disorders
    visual system. It is important to understand that the operation does not replace
    therapeutic methods, and it solves a specific problem that
    can not be solved conservatively.

    Strabismus occurs in 3% of children, including all kinds of diseases. If
    to address the issue seriously, the recovery occurs in 97% of cases.
    Rehabilitation of strabismus involves achieving three main
    functional results: high acuity, symmetric
    the provisions of the eyes and stereoscopic visual perception.

    There is another extreme - many doctors still stubbornly
    It asserts that up to 6 years old do not need to do anything and everything goes by itself. it
    the greatest error - if no action is taken so long,
    complications that can receive and then require more treatment
    time and effort, and sometimes occurred in the "waiting" period changes have already
    irreversible. Treatment should be started as early as possible.

    Sometimes Strabismus is imaginary: from the wide bridge of the nose
    newborn parents podo-
    zrevayut presence of this defect, and it really is not - it
    just an illusion. Here it is in this case all really
    age passes and fix not need anything, but to determine the imaginary
    is strabismus or real, can only be a doctor.

    What is nystagmus

    Strabismus and nystagmus
    Another pathology of oculomotor system in children is
    nystagmus. If this diagnosis is not established at all eyes and the eyes
    constantly make spontaneous chaotic movements of different
    amplitude, due to which the image is always out of focus on the retina.
    Nystagmus - severe pathology of the visual system associated with
    disorders of the central nervous system, disorders and fundus
    the optic nerve. Congenital nystagmus occurs in children enough

    Among the reasons for its occurrence can be called and birth injuries, and
    violations of fetal development. Also can cause nystagmus
    albinism - a hereditary disease characterized by a decrease or
    complete lack of pigmentation of the skin, hair, eyes (eyes, skin
    albinism) or just the eye (ocular albinism). Children with albinism
    They have very white skin; eyebrows, eyelashes and hair are completely devoid of
    pigment. Due to lack of pigment in the retina function violated
    retinal nerve cells, other than that in children with the disease
    disorders are initially in the central region of the retina, and
    in the optic nerve. Consequently there nystagmus.

    Nystagmus in almost all cases is combined with both organic
    (Irreversible) changes in the visual system (partial atrophy
    optic nerve degenerative changes in the fundus), and with
    functional (reversible) disorders. Recent while nystagmus
    develop on the background of comorbidity, especially
    farsightedness, astigmatism, myopia and strabismus. Wherein
    disease in the fundus is formed blurred smudged. TO
    this is added the constant movement of the eyeballs and the displacement
    Images. As a result of the higher parts of the central nervous system
    transmitted picture is not clear, so the visual cells of the cerebral cortex
    insufficiently developed brain and visual acuity reduced.

    nystagmus Treatment

    If you suspect that a child of this disease should be immediately show
    ophthalmologist and neurologist. It is necessary to conduct a survey
    brain on MRI. This will reveal
    possible organic disorders. Many clinics are not taken for medical treatment,
    Considering this pathology hopeless, but to fight for the vision you need in any
    case. With an integrated approach can very good results,
    when used as therapeutic and surgical methods.
    Hardware Conservative treatment of children with nystagmus directed to
    improvement in visual acuity, decrease in blood circulation in the eye,
    increased activity of metabolic processes in the visual cells.
    Treatment should be carried out together with the neurologist, courses on
    two or three weeks several times a year. When nystagmus apply
    special operations on the eye muscles, to reduce the
    frequency and amplitude of oscillatory motion. Treatment enough
    long, the little patient should be kept under constant
    medical observation. The aim is to improve the view to
    child can learn in a regular school, among peers to adapt.

    Pathology of the oculomotor apparatus having a serious impact on
    the formation of the entire visual system of the child. Therefore, treatment should be
    be initiated as early as possible to prevent the development of complications
    and accelerate the functional rehabilitation of the child. Since visual
    toddler system is in constant development in young children
    age all applicable methods are more effective. School child
    It should be as rehabilitated. In older children
    it takes much more time to improve visual function and
    number of cases is not always possible to achieve a full recovery.

    And, of course, very good, when the child involved experienced
    experts, but parents in any case can not be lazy. must
    address the problem of constantly until full recovery and not to cast
    all, as soon as there were good cosmetic results. In such
    the case of interrupted treatment will do no good, it will not be solved until the end
    vision problems and everything will return "to normal".
    It should be remembered that the correct diagnosis and adequate
    prompt treatment is the key to the full rehabilitation of small
    patient, healthy shine and joy in his eyes.

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