Measles - a widespread acute infectious
disease occurs mainly in children and characterized by
fever, catarrh of the mucous membranes
nose, eyes and throat, and the appearance of spots on the skin rash. Measles in the past
sometimes called German measles, but the term is confusing,
because it erroneously used to designate and rubella. Measles
the most severe in malnourished and weakened children and
developing countries still remains a frequent cause of infant
mortality. In addition to the human measles Highly responsive monkeys -
single animal, among which the infection occurs
Measles is caused by an RNA virus
from the family of paramyxovirus (Paramyxoviridae), which also
include mumps virus (mumps), canine distemper and plague
cattle. With two recent measles virus has much in common
features (similar virion structure and structural features and
Replication of the genome); It assumed that measles virus derived from virus
Among known infectious diseases measles - one
most contagious. It is estimated that in the 21 th year of life, 95% of urban residents
the world had been ill with measles. Transmission of the virus occurs with
mucus micro-droplets from the nose, mouth and throat of the patient,
is dissipated by coughing, sneezing and talking. Airborne
measles transmission method is basic, but infection may
occur by inhalation of infected dust. Measles is extremely
contagious: susceptibility to it is close to 100%. After suffering
recovered from the disease persists lifelong immunity; cases
re's disease is extremely rare. Most of the "repetitive" cases
because it was one of the diseases caused by rubella virus.
Children born to mothers undergoing measles remain immune
(Impervious to disease) up to 4 or even 6 months, since for
this period is stored in their blood protective maternal antibodies.
Seasonal peak incidence occurs in late winter. It is still not
clear why in some cities increased incidence of measles
every second or third winter. Measles Outbreaks often occur in
children's collectives (kindergartens, junior high school).
What are the symptoms of measles
period, i.e. time from infection (contact with the patient) until
First symptoms lasts 7-14 days, usually about 10 days. First
symptom - the temperature rise; about 12 hours are marked
marked redness and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes;
develops photophobia; by the end of the first day, there are signs
catarrh mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract (rhinitis,
Sore cough). After about 2-4 days after the first symptoms
mucosal cheek (opposite molars) appear small, with
poppy seed, whitish lesions (Koplik's spots). After 1-2 days
(3-5-day sickness) sudden rash appears. At first she
found behind the ears and on the forehead, then spreads rapidly below -
on the face, neck, body and limbs. The small pink spots rash quickly
They increase in size, becoming irregular in shape, sometimes
merge. During the period of maximum precipitation, 2-3 days after
the appearance of the rash, the temperature can rise up to 40,5 °. Rash
It saved 4-7 days and then fades in the same order as
and there. At the site of the rash are areas of brownish pigmentation,
that lasts 7-10 days.
Patient Measles is most infectious from
11th to 16th day after infection, i.e. increase from the first day
temperature to 4-5-day skin rash.
Possible complications of measles
with uncomplicated forms of measles is low, but the complications are often
may be severe.
In terms of frequency, they are located in
- inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media);
- mastoiditis (inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone);
- inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes;
Treatment and prevention of measles
treatment is not available, so symptomatic therapy.
The patient should be isolated from others (especially by children).
Recommended bed rest and a liquid diet. Dimming room
not necessary. For the prevention of secondary bacterial infections
to develop a measles vaccine began in 1954, when measles virus
(Edmonston strain) for the first time managed to grow in tissue culture. Of
the same strain Dzh.Enders prepared the first live vaccine. conducted
In 1961 tests have confirmed its effectiveness. In 1963, the Ministry of
US health care has allowed to produce two types of measles vaccine:
live attenuated (weakened from a virus) and inactivated
( "Killed"). Using inactivated creating short
immunity, the vaccine did not justify itself; 1968 vaccination in the United States it is not
conducted. Good results are obtained by passive immunization (administration
specific gamma globulin) antibodies completely inhibit infection
or make it easier for the disease. Therefore, immune serum globulin
should be administered as soon as possible after contact with the patient (i.e.
immediately after possible infection). Contrary to forecasts, promising quick
victory over measles as a result of mass immunization statistics
it shows an increased incidence in the world.