What is measles

Content

  • Measles
  • What are the symptoms of measles
  • Possible complications of measles
  • Treatment and prevention of measles



  • Measles

    Measles - a widespread acute infectious
    disease occurs mainly in children and characterized by
    fever, catarrh of the mucous membranes
    nose, eyes and throat, and the appearance of spots on the skin rash. Measles in the past
    sometimes called German measles, but the term is confusing,
    because it erroneously used to designate and rubella. Measles
    the most severe in malnourished and weakened children and
    developing countries still remains a frequent cause of infant
    mortality. In addition to the human measles Highly responsive monkeys -
    single animal, among which the infection occurs
    natural conditions.

    What is measles
    Measles is caused by an RNA virus
    from the family of paramyxovirus (Paramyxoviridae), which also
    include mumps virus (mumps), canine distemper and plague
    cattle. With two recent measles virus has much in common
    features (similar virion structure and structural features and
    Replication of the genome); It assumed that measles virus derived from virus
    Dog distemper.

    Among known infectious diseases measles - one
    most contagious. It is estimated that in the 21 th year of life, 95% of urban residents
    the world had been ill with measles. Transmission of the virus occurs with
    mucus micro-droplets from the nose, mouth and throat of the patient,
    is dissipated by coughing, sneezing and talking. Airborne
    measles transmission method is basic, but infection may
    occur by inhalation of infected dust. Measles is extremely
    contagious: susceptibility to it is close to 100%. After suffering
    recovered from the disease persists lifelong immunity; cases
    re's disease is extremely rare. Most of the "repetitive" cases
    because it was one of the diseases caused by rubella virus.
    Children born to mothers undergoing measles remain immune
    (Impervious to disease) up to 4 or even 6 months, since for
    this period is stored in their blood protective maternal antibodies.
    Seasonal peak incidence occurs in late winter. It is still not
    clear why in some cities increased incidence of measles
    every second or third winter. Measles Outbreaks often occur in
    children's collectives (kindergartens, junior high school).



    What are the symptoms of measles

    incubatory
    period, i.e. time from infection (contact with the patient) until
    First symptoms lasts 7-14 days, usually about 10 days. First
    symptom - the temperature rise; about 12 hours are marked
    marked redness and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes;
    develops photophobia; by the end of the first day, there are signs
    catarrh mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract (rhinitis,
    Sore cough). After about 2-4 days after the first symptoms
    mucosal cheek (opposite molars) appear small, with
    poppy seed, whitish lesions (Koplik's spots). After 1-2 days
    (3-5-day sickness) sudden rash appears. At first she
    found behind the ears and on the forehead, then spreads rapidly below -
    on the face, neck, body and limbs. The small pink spots rash quickly
    They increase in size, becoming irregular in shape, sometimes
    merge. During the period of maximum precipitation, 2-3 days after
    the appearance of the rash, the temperature can rise up to 40,5 °. Rash
    It saved 4-7 days and then fades in the same order as
    and there. At the site of the rash are areas of brownish pigmentation,
    that lasts 7-10 days.

    Patient Measles is most infectious from
    11th to 16th day after infection, i.e. increase from the first day
    temperature to 4-5-day skin rash.



    Possible complications of measles

    Mortality
    with uncomplicated forms of measles is low, but the complications are often
    may be severe.

    In terms of frequency, they are located in
    follows:

    • inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media);
    • mastoiditis (inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone);
    • bronchopneumonia;
    • inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes;
    • laryngitis;
    • encephalitis.



    Treatment and prevention of measles

    specific
    treatment is not available, so symptomatic therapy.
    The patient should be isolated from others (especially by children).
    Recommended bed rest and a liquid diet. Dimming room
    not necessary. For the prevention of secondary bacterial infections
    prescribe antibiotics.

    research
    to develop a measles vaccine began in 1954, when measles virus
    (Edmonston strain) for the first time managed to grow in tissue culture. Of
    the same strain Dzh.Enders prepared the first live vaccine. conducted
    In 1961 tests have confirmed its effectiveness. In 1963, the Ministry of
    US health care has allowed to produce two types of measles vaccine:
    live attenuated (weakened from a virus) and inactivated
    ( "Killed"). Using inactivated creating short
    immunity, the vaccine did not justify itself; 1968 vaccination in the United States it is not
    conducted. Good results are obtained by passive immunization (administration
    specific gamma globulin) antibodies completely inhibit infection
    or make it easier for the disease. Therefore, immune serum globulin
    should be administered as soon as possible after contact with the patient (i.e.
    immediately after possible infection). Contrary to forecasts, promising quick
    victory over measles as a result of mass immunization statistics
    it shows an increased incidence in the world.


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